Recent zbMATH articles in MSC 11D41https://www.zbmath.org/atom/cc/11D412021-04-16T16:22:00+00:00WerkzeugThe Galois action and cohomology of a relative homology group of Fermat curves.https://www.zbmath.org/1456.112172021-04-16T16:22:00+00:00"Davis, Rachel"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:davis.rachel"Pries, Rachel"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:pries.rachel-j"Stojanoska, Vesna"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:stojanoska.vesna"Wickelgren, Kirsten"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:wickelgren.kirsten-gLet \(p\) be a prime satisfying Vandiver's conjecture, i.e., such that \(p\) does not divide the order of \(h^+\) of the class group of \(\mathbb{Q}(\zeta+\zeta^{-1})\), where \(\zeta\) is a \(p\)-th root of unity. Let \(X\) be the degree \(p\) Fermat curve \(x^p+y^p=z^p\). Let \(U\subset X\) be the affine open given by \(z\neq 0\). Consider the closed subscheme \(Y\subset U\) defined by \(xy=0\). Let \(H_1(U,Y;\mathbb{Z}/p)\) denote the étale homology group with \(\mathbb{Z}/p \) coefficients, of the pair \((U\otimes \bar{K},Y\otimes\bar{K})\). By [\textit{G. W. Anderson}, Duke Math. J. 54, 501--561 (1987; Zbl 1370.11069)], the group \(H_1(U,Y;\mathbb{Z}/p)\) is a free rank-one \(\mathbb{Z}/p[\mu_p\times\mu_p]\)-module with generator \(\beta\). The Galois action of \(\sigma\in G_{\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)}\) is then determined by \(\sigma\beta=B_\sigma\beta\), for some \(B_\sigma\in \mathbb{Z}/p[\mu_p\times\mu_p]\). Anderson theoretically described \(B_\sigma\). In this paper, a closed form formula for \(B_\sigma\) is given. Intermediate results by the same authors [\textit{R. Davis} et al., Assoc. Women Math. Ser. 3, 57--86 (2016; Zbl 1416.11045)] about the isomorphism class of the Galois group of the field extension through the action of \(G_{\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)}\) factors, are strongly used.
The first application of this formula is that the norm of \(B_\sigma\) is \(0\) for almost all \(\sigma\). This is important in computing Galois cohomology as in Section 6 where a method for the efficient computation of the first cohomology group \(H^1(G_{\mathbb{Q}(\eta)}, H_1(U,Y;\mathbb{Z}/p))\) is given. This will eventually play a key role in understanding obstructions for rational points on Fermat curves as Ellenberg's obstruction related to the non-abelian Chabauty method.
A second application of the main formula is a proof of the fact that \(H_1(U;\mathbb{Z}/p)\) is trivialized by the product of \(\lfloor 2p/3\rfloor\) terms of the form \((B_\sigma-1)\).
Reviewer: Elisa Lorenzo García (Rennes)Linearly dependent powers of binary quadratic forms.https://www.zbmath.org/1456.110442021-04-16T16:22:00+00:00"Reznick, Bruce"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:reznick.bruceSummary: Given an integer \(d \ge 2\), what is the smallest \(r\) so that there is a set of binary quadratic forms \(\{f_1,\dots,f_r\}\) for which \(\{f_j^d\}\) is nontrivially linearly dependent? We show that if \(r \le 4\), then \(d \le 5\), and for \(d \ge 4\), construct such a set with \(r = \lfloor d/2\rfloor + 2\). Many explicit examples are given, along with techniques for producing others.On twists of smooth plane curves.https://www.zbmath.org/1456.111172021-04-16T16:22:00+00:00"Badr, Eslam"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:badr.eslam-e"Bars, Francesc"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:bars.francesc"Lorenzo García, Elisa"https://www.zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:lorenzo-garcia.elisaLet \(C\) be a projective, smooth, non-hyperelliptic, curve and genus \(g \geq 3\) defined over a field \(k\). Denote by \(\bar{k }\) a fixed separable closure of \(k\) and by \(\bar{C}\) the curve \(C \times_k \bar{k}\). A twist of \(C\) over \(k\) is a projective, non-singular \(C^{\prime}\) defined over \(k\) with a \(\bar{k}\)-isomorphism \(\varphi : \overline{C^{\prime}} \rightarrow \bar{C}\). The paper under review deals with the following question: Assuming that \(C\) admits a smooth \(\bar{k}\)-plane model, does it have a smooth plane model over \(k\)? And if the answer is yes, does every twist of C over
\(k\) also have smooth plane model over \(k\)? The answer, in general, is negative. The twists possessing such models are characterized and an example of a twist not admitting any non-singular plane model over \(k\) is given. An interesting consequence is that explicit equations for a non-trivial Brauer-Severi surface are obtained. Furthermore, for smooth plane curves defined over \(k\) with a cyclic automorphism group generated by a diagonal matrix, a general theoretical result to
compute all its twists is presented.
Reviewer: Dimitros Poulakis (Thessaloniki)