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Integer least squares for precise GPS positioning. (English) Zbl 1058.86002
Summary: Precise ranges for positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS) are obtained from carrier phase measurements. These measurements of range inherently contain an integer ambiguity, to account for a mismatch of a whole number of wavelengths or cycles. In the last decade, the least squares principle for parameter estimation has been successfully extended to the integer domain, providing a powerful instrument to resolve the ambiguities
This contribution identifies the actual problem with the unknown integer cycle ambiguity, explains the basic theory of integer least squares and reviews some of the high precision positioning applications that come into reach when the integer carrier phase ambiguities can be resolved quickly and correctly.
86A30 Geodesy, mapping problems
65D10 Numerical smoothing, curve fitting