zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Robust features of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to high-intensity free-stream turbulence. (English) Zbl 1415.76336
Summary: The influence of the large scale organisation of free-stream turbulence on a turbulent boundary layer is investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel through hot-wire measurements. An active grid is used to generate high-intensity free-stream turbulence with turbulence intensities and local turbulent Reynolds numbers in the ranges \(7.2\%\leqslant u_\infty'/U_\infty\leqslant 13.0\%\) and \(302\leqslant Re_{\lambda,\infty}\leqslant 760\), respectively. In particular, several cases are produced with fixed \(u_\infty'/U_\infty\) and \(Re_{\lambda,\infty}\), but up to a 65% change in the free-stream integral scale \(L_{u,\infty}/\delta\). It is shown that, while qualitatively the spectra at various wall-normal positions in the boundary layer look similar, there are quantifiable differences at the large wavelengths all the way to the wall. Nonetheless, profiles of the longitudinal statistics up to fourth order are well collapsed between cases at the same \(u_\infty'/U_\infty\). It is argued that a larger separation of the integral scale would not yield a different result, nor would it be physically realisable. Comparing cases across the wide range of turbulence intensities and free-stream Reynolds numbers tested, it is demonstrated that the near-wall spectral peak is independent of the free-stream turbulence, and seemingly universal. The outer peak was also found to be described by a set of global scaling laws, and hence both the near-wall and outer spectral peaks can be predicted a priori with only knowledge of the free-stream spectrum, the boundary layer thickness \((\delta)\) and the friction velocity \((U_\tau)\). Finally, a conceptual model is suggested that attributes the increase in \(U_\tau\) as \(u_\infty'/U_\infty\) increases to the build-up of energy at large wavelengths near the wall because that energy cannot be transferred to the universal near-wall spectral peak.

76F40 Turbulent boundary layers
76F05 Isotropic turbulence; homogeneous turbulence
Full Text: DOI
[1] Baars, W. J.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I., Spectral stochastic estimation of high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded turbulence for a refined inner – outer interaction model, Phys. Rev. F, 1, (2016)
[2] Brandt, L.; Schlatter, P.; Henningson, D. S., Transition in boundary layers subject to free-stream turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 517, 167-198, (2004) · Zbl 1131.76326
[3] Castro, I. P., Effects of free stream turbulence on low Reynolds number boundary layers, J. Fluids Engng, 106, 3, 298-306, (1984)
[4] Corrsin, S.1963Turbulence: experimental methods. In Handbuch der Physik (ed. Flügge, S. & Truesdell, C. A.), pp. 524-589. Springer.
[5] Dogan, E.; Hanson, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B., Interactions of large-scale free-stream turbulence with turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech., 802, 79-107, (2016)
[6] Dogan, E.; Hearst, R. J.; Ganapathisubramani, B., Modelling high Reynolds number wall – turbulence interactions in laboratory experiments using large-scale free-stream turbulence, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 375, 2089, (2017)
[7] Ertunç, Ö.; Özyilmaz, N.; Lienhart, H.; Durst, F.; Beronov, K., Homogeneity of turbulence generated by static-grid structures, J. Fluid Mech., 654, 473-500, (2010) · Zbl 1193.76006
[8] Esteban, L. B.; Dogan, E.; Rodríguez-López, E.; Ganapathisubramani, B., Skin-friction measurements in a turbulent boundary layer under the influence of free-stream turbulence, Exp. Fluids, 58, 9, 115, (2017)
[9] Fransson, J. H. M.; Matsubara, M.; Alfredsson, P. H., Transition induced by free-stream turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 527, 1-25, (2005) · Zbl 1142.76303
[10] Hack, M. J. P.; Zaki, T. A., Streak instabilities in boundary layers beneath free-stream turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 741, 280-315, (2014)
[11] Hancock, P. E.; Bradshaw, P., The effect of free-stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluids Engng, 105, 284-289, (1983)
[12] Hancock, P. E.; Bradshaw, P., Turbulence structure of a boundary layer beneath a turbulent free stream, J. Fluid Mech., 205, 45-76, (1989)
[13] Hearst, R. J.; Buxton, O. R. H.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Lavoie, P., Experimental estimation of fluctuating velocity and scalar gradients in turbulence, Exp. Fluids, 53, 4, 925-942, (2012)
[14] Hearst, R. J.; Gomit, G.; Ganapathisubramani, B., Effect of turbulence on the wake of a wall-mounted cube, J. Fluid Mech., 804, 513-530, (2016)
[15] Hearst, R. J.; Lavoie, P., Decay of turbulence generated by a square-fractal-element grid, J. Fluid Mech., 741, 567-584, (2014)
[16] Hearst, R. J.; Lavoie, P., The effect of active grid initial conditions on high Reynolds number turbulence, Exp. Fluids, 56, 10, 185, (2015)
[17] Hearst, R. J.; Lavoie, P., Effects of multi-scale and regular grid geometries on decaying turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 803, 528-555, (2016)
[18] Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I., Evidence of very long meandering features in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 1-28, (2007) · Zbl 1113.76004
[19] Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I., Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365, 657-664, (2007) · Zbl 1152.76421
[20] Isaza, J. C.; Salazar, R.; Warhaft, Z., On grid-generated turbulence in the near- and far field regions, J. Fluid Mech., 753, 402-426, (2014)
[21] Kang, H. S.; Chester, S.; Meneveau, C., Decaying turbulence in an active-grid-generated flow and comparisons with large-eddy simulation, J. Fluid Mech., 480, 129-160, (2003) · Zbl 1063.76507
[22] Klewicki, J. C., Reynolds number dependence, scaling, and dynamics of turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluids Engng, 132, (2010)
[23] Klewicki, J.; Fife, P.; Wei, T., On the logarithmic mean profile, J. Fluid Mech., 638, 73-93, (2009) · Zbl 1183.76766
[24] Klewicki, J.; Fife, P.; Wei, T.; Mcmurtry, P., A physical model of the turbulent boundary layer consonant with mean momentum balance structure, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365, 823-839, (2007) · Zbl 1152.76407
[25] Kreilos, T.; Khapko, T.; Schlatter, P.; Duguet, Y.; Henningson, D. S.; Eckhardt, B., Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers, Phys. Rev. F, 1, (2016) · Zbl 1284.76106
[26] Larssen, J. V.; Devenport, W. J., On the generation of large-scale homogeneous turbulence, Exp. Fluids, 50, 1207-1223, (2011)
[27] Makita, H., Realization of a large-scale turbulence field in a small wind tunnel, Fluid Dyn. Res., 8, 53-64, (1991)
[28] Marusic, I.; Baars, W. J.; Hutchins, N., Scaling of the streamwise turbulence intensity in the context of inner – outer interactions in wall turbulence, Phys. Rev. F, 2, (2017)
[29] Marusic, I.; Monty, J. P.; Hultmark, M.; Smits, A. J., On the logarithmic region in wall turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 716, R3, (2013) · Zbl 1284.76206
[30] Mathis, R.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I., Large-scale amplitude modulation of the small-scale structures in turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech., 628, 311-337, (2009) · Zbl 1181.76008
[31] Mydlarski, L.; Warhaft, Z., On the onset of high-Reynolds-number grid-generated wind tunnel turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 320, 331-368, (1996)
[32] Nickels, T. B.; Marusic, I.; Hafez, S.; Chong, M. S., Evidence of the k_1-1 law in a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, (2005)
[33] Nickels, T. B.; Marusic, I.; Hafez, S.; Hutchins, N.; Chong, M. S., Some predictions of the attached eddy model for a high Reynolds number boundary layer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365, 807-822, (2007) · Zbl 1152.76414
[34] Rodríguez-López, E.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Buxton, O. R. H., A robust post-processing method to determine skin friction in turbulent boundary layers from the velocity profile, Exp. Fluids, 56, 4, 68, (2015)
[35] Schlatter, P.; Örlü, R., Turbulent boundary layers at moderate Reynolds numbers: inflow length and tripping effects, J. Fluid Mech., 710, 5-34, (2012) · Zbl 1275.76144
[36] Shahinfar, S.; Fransson, J. H. M., Effect of free-stream turbulence characteristics on boundary layer transition, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 318, (2011)
[37] Sharp, N.; Neuscamman, S.; Warhaft, Z., Effects of large-scale free stream turbulence on a turbulent boundary layer, Phys. Fluids, 21, (2009) · Zbl 1183.76470
[38] Smits, A. J.; Monty, J. P.; Hultmark, M.; Bailey, S. C. C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I., Spatial resolution correction for wall-bounded turbulence measurements, J. Fluid Mech., 676, 41-53, (2011) · Zbl 1241.76288
[39] Thormann, A.; Meneveau, C., Decay of homogeneous, nearly isotropic turbulence behind active fractal grids, Phys. Fluids, 26, (2014)
[40] Valente, P. C.; Vassilicos, J. C., Universal dissipation scaling for nonequilibrium turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, (2012) · Zbl 1255.76032
[41] Vassilicos, J. C., Dissipation in turbulent flows, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 47, 95-114, (2015)
[42] Vincenti, P.; Klewicki, J.; Morrill-Winter, C.; White, C. M.; Wosnik, M., Streamwise velocity statistics in turbulent boundary layers that spatially develop to high Reynolds number, Exp. Fluids, 54, 1629, (2013)
[43] Wu, X.; Moin, P.; Wallace, J. M.; Skarda, J.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Hickey, J.-P., Transitional – turbulent spots and turbulent – turbulent spots in boundary layers, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 114, 27, E5292-E5299, (2017)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.