A dynamic over-sampling procedure based on sensitivity for multi-class problems.

*(English)*Zbl 1218.68121Summary: Classification with imbalanced datasets supposes a new challenge for researches in the framework of machine learning. This problem appears when the number of patterns that represents one of the classes of the dataset (usually the concept of interest) is much lower than in the remaining classes. Thus, the learning model must be adapted to this situation, which is very common in real applications. In this paper, a dynamic over-sampling procedure is proposed for improving the classification of imbalanced datasets with more than two classes. This procedure is incorporated into a memetic algorithm (MA) that optimizes radial basis functions neural networks (RBFNNs). To handle class imbalance, the training data are resampled in two stages. In the first stage, an over-sampling procedure is applied to the minority class to balance in part the size of the classes. Then, the MA is run and the data are over-sampled in different generations of the evolution, generating new patterns of the minimum sensitivity class (the class with the worst accuracy for the best RBFNN of the population). The methodology proposed is tested using 13 imbalanced benchmark classification datasets from well-known machine learning problems and one complex problem of microbial growth. It is compared to other neural network methods specifically designed for handling imbalanced data. These methods include different over-sampling procedures in the preprocessing stage, a threshold-moving method where the output threshold is moved toward inexpensive classes and ensembles approaches combining the models obtained with these techniques. The results show that our proposal is able to improve the sensitivity in the generalization set and obtains both a high accuracy level and a good classification level for each class.

##### MSC:

68T05 | Learning and adaptive systems in artificial intelligence |

68T10 | Pattern recognition, speech recognition |

##### Keywords:

classification; multi-class; sensitivity; accuracy; memetic algorithm; imbalanced datasets; over-sampling method; SMOTE
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\textit{F. Fernández-Navarro} et al., Pattern Recognition 44, No. 8, 1821--1833 (2011; Zbl 1218.68121)

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