zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Feedback control of the limbs position during voluntary rhythmic oscillation. (English) Zbl 1125.92010
Summary: The mechanisms that control the limbs position during rhythmic voluntary oscillations were investigated in ten subjects, who were asked to synchronise the lower peak of their hand or foot rhythmic oscillations to a metronome beat. The efficacy of the “position control” was estimated by measuring the degree of synchronisation between the metronome signal and the requested limb position and how it was affected by changing both the oscillation frequency (between 0.4 and 3.0 Hz) and the limbs inertial properties. With the limbs unloaded, the lower peak of both the hand and foot oscillations lagged the metronome beat of a slight amount that remained constant over the whole frequency range (mean phase delay \(-13.2^{\circ}\) for the hand and \(-4.7^{\circ}\) for the foot). The constancy was obtained by phase-advancing, at each frequency increment, the electromyogram (EMG) activation with respect of the clock beat of the amount necessary to compensate for the simultaneous increase of the lag between the EMG and the movement, produced by the limb mechanical impedance. After loading of either limb, the increase of the oscillation frequency induced larger EMG-movement delays and the anticipatory compensation became insufficient, so that the movement progressively phase-lagged the clock beat.
The above results have been accurately simulated by a neural network connected to a pendulum model that shared the same mechanical properties of the moving limb. The network compares a central command (the intended position) to the actual position of the effector and acts as a closed-loop proportional, integrative and derivative controller. It is proposed that the synchronisation of rhythmic oscillations of either the hand or the foot is sustained by a feed-back control that conforms the position of each limb to that encoded in the central voluntary command.

92C20 Neural biology
93B52 Feedback control
Full Text: DOI
[1] Aschersleben G (2002) Temporal control of movements in sensorimotor synchronization. Brain Cogn 48:66–79 · doi:10.1006/brcg.2001.1304
[2] Baldissera F, Cavallari P (2001) Neural compensation for mechanical loading of the hand during coupled oscillations of the hand and foot. Exp Brain Res 139:18–29 · doi:10.1007/s002210100762
[3] Baldissera F, Campadelli P, Piccinelli L (1984) The dynamic response of cat alpha-motoneurones investigated by intracellular injection of sinusoidal currents. Exp Brain Res 54:275–282 · doi:10.1007/BF00236227
[4] Baldissera F, Campadelli P, Piccinelli L (1987) The dynamic response of cat gastrocnemius motor units investigated by ramp-current injection into their motoneurones. J Physiol 387:317–330
[5] Baldissera F, Cavallari P, Marini G, Tassone G (1991) Differential control of in-phase and anti-phase coupling of rhythmic movements of ipsilateral hand and foot. Exp Brain Res 83:375–380 · doi:10.1007/BF00231161
[6] Baldissera F, Cavallari P, Cerri G (1998) Motoneuronal pre- compensation for the low-pass filter characteristics of muscle. A quantitative appraisal in cat muscle units. J Physiol 511(Pt 2): 611–627
[7] Baldissera F, Borroni P, Cavallari P (2000) Neural compensation for mechanical differences between hand and foot during coupled oscillations of the two segments. Exp Brain Res 133: 165–177 · doi:10.1007/s002210000368
[8] Baldissera F, Cavallari P, Esposti R (2004) Foot equilibrium position controls partition of voluntary command to antagonists during foot oscillations. Exp Brain Res 155:274–282 · doi:10.1007/s00221-003-1723-y
[9] Baldissera FG, Cavallari P, Esposti R (2006) Synchrony of hand–foot coupled movements: is it attained by mutual feedback entrainment or by independent linkage of each limb to a common rhythm generator? BMC Neurosci 7:70
[10] Billon M, Bard C, Fleury M, Blouin J, Teasdale N (1996) Simultaneity of two effectors in synchronization with a periodic external signal. Hum Mov Sci 15:25–38 · doi:10.1016/0167-9457(95)00037-2
[11] Bobet J, Norman RW (1990) Least-squares identification of the dynamic relation between the electromyogram and joint moment. J Biomech 23:1275–1276 · doi:10.1016/0021-9290(90)90386-H
[12] Cheney PD, Fetz EE (1980) Functional classes of primate corticomotoneuronal cells and their relation to active force. J Neurophys 44:773–791
[13] Cheney PD, Kasser R, Holsapple J (1982) Reciprocal effect of single corticomotoneuronal cells on wrist extensor and flexor muscle activity in the primate. Brain Res 247:164–168 · doi:10.1016/0006-8993(82)91043-5
[14] Christopoulos A (1998) Assessing the distribution of parameters in models of ligand-receptor interaction: to log or not to log. Trends Pharmacol Sci 19:351–357 · doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(98)01240-1
[15] Esposti R, Cavallari P, Baldissera F (2005) Partition of voluntary command to antagonist muscles during cyclic flexion–extension of the hand. Exp Brain Res 162:436–448 · doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2120-x
[16] Feldman AG (1986) Once more on the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) for motor control. J Mot Behav 18:17–54
[17] Fetz EE, Perlmutter SI, Prut Y, Seki K, Votaw S (2002) Roles of primate spinal interneurons in preparation and execution of voluntary hand movement. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 40:53–65 · doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(02)00188-1
[18] Jo S, Massaquoi SG (2004) A model of cerebellum stabilized and scheduled hybrid long-loop control of upright balance. Biol Cybern 91:188–202 · Zbl 1078.92014 · doi:10.1007/s00422-004-0497-z
[19] Lakie M, Walsh EG, Wright GW (1984) Resonance at the wrist demonstrated by the use of a torque motor: an instrumental analysis of muscle tone in man. J Physiol 353:265–285
[20] Lehman SL, Calhoun BM (1990) An identified model for human wrist movements. Exp Brain Res 81:199–208 · doi:10.1007/BF00230116
[21] Mackey DC, Meichenbaum DP, Shemmell J, Riek S, Carson RG (2002) Neural compensation for compliant loads during rhythmic movement. Exp Brain Res 142:409–417 · doi:10.1007/s00221-001-0946-z
[22] Maier MA, Perlmutter SI, Fetz EE (1998) Response patterns and force relations of monkey spinal interneurons during active wrist movement. J Neurophysiol 80:2495–2513
[23] Mewes K, Cheney PD (1994) Primate rubromotoneuronal cells: parametric relations and contribution to wrist movement. J Neurophys 72:14–30
[24] Motulsky HJ, Christopoulos A (2003) Fitting models to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression. A practical guide to curve fitting. GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego · Zbl 1081.62100
[25] Patel AD, Iversen JR, Chen Y, Repp BH (2005) The influence of metricality and modality on synchronization with a beat. Exp Brain Res 163:226–238 · doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2159-8
[26] Perlmutter SI, Maier MA, Fetz EE (1998) Activity of spinal interneurons and their effects on forearm muscles during voluntary wrist movements in the monkey. J Neurophysiol 80:2475–2494
[27] Peterka RJ (2002) Sensorimotor integration in human postural control. J Neurophysiol 88:1097–1118
[28] Peterka RJ (2003) Simplifying the complexities of maintaining balance. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 22:63–68 · doi:10.1109/MEMB.2003.1195698
[29] Ridderikhoff A, Peper CL, Beek PJ (2005) Unraveling interlimb interactions underlying bimanual coordination. J Neurophysiol 94:3112–3125 · doi:10.1152/jn.01077.2004
[30] Soechting JF, Roberts WJ (1976) Transfer characteristics between EMG activity and muscle tension under isometric conditions in man. J Physiol (Paris) 70:779–793
[31] Stark LS (1968) Neurological control systems. Studies in bioengineering. Plenum Press, New York
[32] Stiles RN (1983) Lightly damped hand oscillations: acceleration-related feedback and system damping. J Neurophysiol 50:327–343
[33] Todorov E (2000) Direct cortical control of muscle activation in voluntary arm movements: a model. Nat Neurosci 3:391–398 · doi:10.1038/73964
[34] Turvey MT, Schmidt RC, Rosenblum LD (1989) ’Clock’ and ’motor’ components in absolute coordination of rhythmic movements. Neuroscience 33:1–10 · doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90305-9
[35] Viviani P, Soechting JF, Terzuolo CA (1976) Influence of mechanical properties on the relation between EMG activity and torque. J Physiol (Paris) 72:45–58
[36] Wing AM, Kristofferson AB (1973) Response delays and the timing of discrete motor responses. Percept Psychophys
[37] Winter DA (1990) Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Wiley, New York
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.