×

Comprehensive solutions for underwater tunnels in rock masses with different GSI values considering blast-induced damage zone and seepage forces. (English) Zbl 1481.74551

Summary: Rock excavation using drill and blast method is commonly used in tunneling world-wide. Drill and blast method has inherent disadvantage of deteriorating surrounding rock mass due to development of a blast-induced damage zone with reduced strength and stiffness parameters and increased permeability. Traditional tunnel analysis adopts same parameters for the entire rock mass, leading to the underestimation of tunnel stability. The blast damage zone with finite thickness is significant in tunnel stability. Tunneling below the groundwater table affects the hydraulic equilibrium. This will, in turn, cause seepage into the tunnel through the pores and discontinuities in the rock masses. The developed seepage force should be considered as an additional body force acting on both damaged and undamaged rock masses. This study presents a new analytical closed-form solution for the determination of stresses, strains, and displacements around a circular deep underwater tunnel with the consideration of the seepage forces and the damaged zone. The solutions are presented for tunnels excavated in pervious elastic-brittle-plastic rock masses with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The damaged zone is assumed to have cylindrical shape with finite radius. The plastic zones may be formed in both damaged and undamaged rock masses, independently. In order to solve the proposed problem, three different paths for plasticity evolution including six different states that can possibly be encountered in the problem are considered. The results indicate that the seepage and the damaged zone have significant effects on the tunnel convergence and the distribution of stresses in the rock mass.

MSC:

74L10 Soil and rock mechanics
PDF BibTeX XML Cite
Full Text: DOI

References:

[1] Carranza-Torres, C.; Fairhust, C., Application of the convergence-confinement method of tunnel design to rock masses that satisfy the Hoek-Brown failure criterion, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 15, 187-213 (2000)
[2] Oreste, P. P., Analysis of structural interaction in tunnels using the convergence-confinement approach, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 18, 347-363 (2003)
[3] Alonso, E.; Alejano, L. R.; Varas, F.; Fdez-Manı´n, G.; Carranza-Torres, C., Ground response curves for rock masses exhibiting strain-softening behavior, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods, 27, 1153-1185 (2003) · Zbl 1098.74039
[4] Oreste, P., The convergence-confinement method: roles and limits in modern geomechanical tunnel design, Am. J. Appl. Sci., 4, 757-771 (2009)
[5] Brown, E. T.; Bray, J. W.; Ladanyi, B.; Hoek, E., Ground response curves for rock tunnels, J. Geotech. Eng., 109, 1, 15-39 (1983)
[6] Carranza-Torres, C.; Fairhurst, C., The elasto-plastic response of underground excavations in rock masses that satisfy the Hoek-Brown failure criterion, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 36, 777-809 (1999)
[7] Sharan, S. K., Elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of circular openings in Hoek-Brown media, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 40, 817-824 (2003)
[8] Sharan, S. K., Exact and approximate solutions for displacements around circular openings in elastic-brittle-plastic Hoek-Brown rock, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 42, 542-549 (2005)
[9] Park, K. H.; Kim, Y. J., Analytical solution for a circular opening in, an elasto-brittle-plastic rock, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 43, 616-622 (2006)
[10] Carranza-Torres, C., Elasto-plastic solution of tunnel problems using the generalized form of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 41, 480-481 (2004)
[11] Guan, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Tanabasi, Y., Ground reaction analyses in conventional tunneling excavation, Tunnel. Undergr. Space Technol., 22, 230-237 (2007)
[12] Alonso, E.; Alejano, L. R.; Varas, F.; Fdez-Manin, G.; Carranza-Torres, C., Ground response curves for rock masses exhibiting strain-softening behavior, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 27, 1153-1185 (2003) · Zbl 1098.74039
[13] Park, K. H.; Tontavanich, B.; Lee, J. G., A simple procedure for ground response curve of circular tunnel in elastic-strain softening rock masses, Tunnel. Undergr. Space Technol., 23, 151-159 (2008)
[14] Lee, Y.,. K.; Pietruszczak, S., A new numerical procedure for elasto-plastic analysis of a circular opening excavated in a strain-softening rock mass, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 23, 5, 588-599 (2008)
[15] Hoek, E.; Carranza-Torres, C. T.; Corkum, B., Hoek-Brown failure criterion -2002 edition., (Proceedings of the 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium and 17th Tunnelling Association of Canada Conference. Proceedings of the 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium and 17th Tunnelling Association of Canada Conference, Toronto (2002)), 267-273
[16] Zhang, Q.; Zhang, C. H.; Jiang, B. S.; Li, N.; Wang, Y. C., Elastoplastic coupling solution of circular openings in strain-softening rock mass considering pressure-dependent effect, Int. J. Geomech. ASCE, 18, Article 04017132 pp. (2018)
[17] Han, J. X.; Li, S. C.; Li, S. C.; Yang, W. M.A., procedure of strain-softening model for elastoplastic analysis of circular opening considering elasto-plastic coupling, Tunn. Undergr. Space Tech., 37, 128-134 (2013)
[18] Brown, E. T.; Bray, J. W.; Santarelli, F. J., Influence of stress-dependent elastic moduli on stresses and strains around axisymmetric boreholes, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 22, 189-203 (1989)
[19] Carranza-Torres, C.; Zhao, J., Analytical and numerical study of the effect of water pore pressure on the mechanical response of cylindrical lined tunnels in elastic and elasto-plastic porous media, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 46, 3, 531-547 (2009)
[20] Shin, Y. J.; Kim, B. M.; Shin, J. H.; Lee, I. M., The ground reaction curve of underwater tunnels considering seepage forces, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 25, 4, 315-324 (2010)
[21] Shin, Y. J.; Song, K. L.; Lee, I. M.; Cho, G. C., Interaction between tunnel supports and ground convergence—consideration of seepage forces, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 48, 3, 394-405 (2011)
[22] Lee, I. M.; Nam, S. W., The study of seepage forces acting on the tunnel lining and tunnel face in shallow cavities, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 16, 1, 31-40 (2001)
[23] Fahimifar, A.; Zareifard, M. R., A theoretical solution for analysis of tunnels below groundwater considering the hydraulic– mechanical coupling, Tunnel. Underg. Space Technol., 24, 26, 634-646 (2009)
[24] Bobet, A., Characteristic curves for deep circular tunnels in poroplastic rock, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 43, 2, 185-200 (2010)
[25] Zareifard, M. R.; Fahimifar, A., Effect of seepage forces on circular openings excavated in Hoek-Brown rock mass based on a generalised effective stress principle, Eur. J. Environ. Civ. Eng., 18, 5 (2014)
[26] Fahimifar, A.; Zareifard, M. R., A new elasto-plastic solution for analysis of underwater tunnels considering strain dependent permeability, Struct. Infrastruct. Eng. Maint. Manag. Life-Cycle Des. Perform., 10, 11 (2014)
[27] Zareifard, M. R.; Fahimifar, A., Elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of circular deep underwater cavities in a Mohr-Coulomb rock mass considering seepage forces, Int. J. Geomech., 15, 5 (2015)
[28] Zou, J. F.; Qian, Z. H., Face-stability analysis of tunnels excavated below groundwater considering coupled flow deformation, Int. J. Geomech. ASCE, 18, 8, Article 04018089 pp. (2018)
[29] Zou, J.; Li, S.; Xu, Y., Theoretical solutions for a circular opening in an elastic-brittle-plastic rock mass incorporating the out-of-plane stress and seepage force, KSCE J. Civ. Eng., 20, 687-701 (2016)
[30] Zareifard, M. R.; Fahimifar, A., Analytical solutions for the stresses and deformations of deep tunnels in an elastic-brittle-plastic rock mass considering the damaged zone, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 58, 186-196 (2016)
[31] Zareifard, M. R., Analytical solutions for the stresses and deformations of deep tunnels in an elastic-brittle-plastic rock mass considering the damaged zone, Int. J. Geomech., 20, 10, 186-196 (2020), 58
[32] Zareifard, M. R., A new semi-numerical method for elastoplastic analysis of a circular tunnel excavated in a Hoek-Brown strain-softening rock mass considering the blast-induced damaged zone, Comput. Geotech., 122, Article 103476 pp. (2020)
[33] González-Cao, J.; Alejano, L. R.; Alonso, E.; Bastante, F. G., Convergence-confinement curve analysis of excavation stress and strain resulting from blast-induced damage, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 73, 162-169 (2018)
[34] Ghorbani, A.; Hasanzadehshooiili, H., A comprehensive solution for the calculation of ground reaction curve in the crown and sidewalls of circular tunnels in the elastic-plastic-EDZ rock mass considering strain softening, Tunnel. Undergr. Space Tech., 84, 413-431 (2019)
[35] Hedayat, A.; Weems, J., The elasto‑plastic response of deep tunnels with damaged zone and gravity effects, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 52, 12, 5123-5135 (2019)
[36] Zareifard, M. R., Ground reaction curve of deep circular tunnel in rock mass exhibiting Hoek-Brown strain-softening behaviour considering the dead weight loading, J. Environ. Civ. Eng. (2019)
[37] Zareifard, M. R.; Fahimifar, A., A new solution for shallow and deep tunnels by considering the gravitational loads, Acta Geotech. Slov., 2, 4, 37-49 (2012)
[38] Vrakas, A.; Anagnostou, G., A finite strain closed-form solution for the elastoplastic ground response curve in tunnelling, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 38, 1131-1148 (2014)
[39] Park, K. H., Large strain similarity solution for a spherical or circular opening excavated in elastic-perfectly plastic media, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 39, 724-737 (2015)
[40] Zhang, Q.; Li, C.; Jiang, B. S.; Yu, L. Y., Elastoplastic analysis of circular openings in elastobrittle-plastic rock mass based on logarithmic strain, Math. Probl. Eng., 7503912, 1-9 (2017), 2017
[41] Guan, K.; Zhu, W. C.; Wei, J.; Liu, X. G.; Niu, L. L.; Wang, X. R., A finite strain numerical procedure for a circular tunnel in strain-softening rock mass with large deformation, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 112, 266-280 (2018), 2018
[42] Zhang, Q.; Wang, H. Y.; Jiang, Y.-. J.; Jiang, B.-. S., A numerical large strain solution for circular tunnels excavated in strain- softening rock masses, Comput. Geotech., 114, Article 103142 pp. (2019)
[43] Reed, M., The influence of out-of-plane stress on a plane strain problem in rock mechanics, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 12, 173-181 (1988) · Zbl 0631.73089
[44] Pan, X.-. D.; Brown, E. T., Influence of axial stress and dilatancy on rock tunnel stability, J. Geotech. Eng., 122, 139-146 (1996)
[45] Lu, A. Z.; Xu, G. S.; Sun, F.; Sun, W. Q., Elasto-plastic analysis of a circular tunnel including the effects of the axial in situ stress, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 47, 50-59 (2010)
[46] Yu, Haitao; Sun, Yuqi; Li;, Pan; Zhao, Mi, Analytical solution for dynamic response of underground rectangular fluid tank subjected to arbitrary dynamic loads, J. Eng. Mech. ASCE, 146, 8, Article 04020077 pp. (2020)
[47] Yang, Y.; Yu, H.; Yuan, Y.; Zhao, M., Analytical solution for longitudinal seismic response of long tunnels subjected to rayleigh waves, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 44, 10, 1371-1385 (2020), 2020
[48] Jinghua, Z.; Yong, Y.; Emilio, B.; Yu, Haitao, Analytical solutions for seismic responses of shaft-tunnel junction under longitudinal excitations, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 131, Article 106033 pp. (2020)
[49] Carlson, S. R.; Young, R. P., Acoustic emission and ultrasonic velocity study of excavation-induced microcrack damage at the underground research laboratory, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 30, 7, 901-907 (1993)
[50] Kruschwitz, S.; Yaramanci, U., Detection and characterization of the disturbed rock zone in claystone with the complex resistivity method, J. Appl. Geophy., 57, 1, 63-79 (2004)
[51] Xie, L. X.; Lu, W. B.; Zhang, Q. B.; Jiang, Q. H.; Zhao, J., Damage evolution mechanisms of rock in deep tunnels induced by cut blasting, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 58, 257-270 (2016)
[52] Cai, M.; Kaiser, P. K.; Tasaka, Y.; Minamic, M., Determination of residual strength parameters of jointed rock masses using the GSI system, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 44, 2, 247-265 (2007)
[53] Hoek, E.; Diederichs, M. S., Empirical estimation of rock mass modulus, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 43, 2, 203-215 (2006)
[54] Vásárhelyi, B., A possible method for estimating the Poisson’s rate values of rock masses, Acta Geod. et Geophys. Hung., 44, 3, 313-322 (2009)
[55] Saiang, D., Determination of specific failure envelope via PFC and its subsequent application using FLAC, (Proceedings of the 1st International FLAC/DEM Symposium in Numerical Modeling. Proceedings of the 1st International FLAC/DEM Symposium in Numerical Modeling, Minneapolis, MN, USA (2008))
[56] PFC2D (2004), Itasca Consulting Group: Itasca Consulting Group Minnesota, 3.10
[57] Terzaghi, K., Theoretical Soil Mechanics (1943), Wiley: Wiley New York
[58] Biot, M. A., General theory of three dimensional consolidation, J. Appl. Phys., 12, 155-164 (1941) · JFM 67.0837.01
[59] Terzaghi, K.; Peck, R. B.; Mesri, G., Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice (1996), Wiley: Wiley New York
[60] Kolymbas, D.; Wagner, P., Groundwater ingress to tunnels – the exact analytical solution, Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 22, 23-27 (2007)
[61] Timoshenko, S. P.; Goodier, J. N., Theory of Elasticity (1982), McGraw-Hill: McGraw-Hill New York · Zbl 0266.73008
[62] Vermeer, P. A.; de Borst, R., Non associated plasticity for soils, concrete and rock, Heron, 29, 3, 3-64 (1984)
[63] Hoek, E.; Brown, E. T., Practical estimates of rock mass strength, Int. J. Rock Mech. Sci. Geom. Abstr., 34, 8, 1165-1187 (1997)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.