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A multi-population approach to forecasting all-cause mortality using cause-of-death mortality data. (English) Zbl 1460.91231

Summary: All-cause mortality is driven by various types of cause-specific mortality. Projecting all-cause mortality based on cause-of-death mortality allows one to understand the drivers of the recent changes in all-cause mortality. However, the existing literature has argued that all-cause mortality projections based on cause-specific mortality experience have a number of serious drawbacks, including the inferior cause-of-death mortality data and the complex dependence structure between causes of death. In this article, we use the recent World Health Organization causes-of-death data to address this issue in a multipopulation context. We construct a new model in the spirit of N. Li and R. D. Lee [“Coherent mortality forecasts for a group of populations: an extension of the Lee-Carter method”, Demography 42, No. 3, 575–594 (2005; doi:10.1353/dem.2005.0021)] but in terms of cause-specific mortality. A new two-step beta convergence test is used to capture the cause-specific mortality dynamics between different countries and between different causes. We show that the all-cause mortality estimations produced by the new model perform in the sample similarly to the estimations by the Lee-Carter and Li-Lee all-cause mortality models. However, in contrast to results from earlier studies, we find that the all-cause mortality projections of the new model have better out-of-sample performance in a long forecast horizon. Moreover, for the case of The Netherlands, an approximately 1-year higher remaining life expectancy projection for a 67-year-old Dutch male in a 30-year forecast horizon is obtained by this new model, compared to the all-cause Li-Lee mortality model.

MSC:

91G05 Actuarial mathematics
91D20 Mathematical geography and demography
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