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Throttling for zero forcing and variants. (English) Zbl 1437.05070
Author’s abstract: Zero forcing is a process on a graph in which the goal is to force all vertices to become blue by applying a color change rule. Throttling minimizes the sum of the number of vertices that are initially blue and the number of time steps needed to color every vertex. This paper provides a new general definition of throttling for variants of zero forcing and studies throttling for the minor monotone floor of zero forcing. The technique of using a zero forcing process to extend a given graph is introduced. For standard zero forcing and its floor, these extensions are used to characterize graphs with throttling number at most \(t\) as certain minors of Cartesian products of complete graphs and paths. Finally, these characterizations are applied to determine graphs with extreme throttling numbers.
05C15 Coloring of graphs and hypergraphs
05C76 Graph operations (line graphs, products, etc.)
05C35 Extremal problems in graph theory
05C85 Graph algorithms (graph-theoretic aspects)
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