Optimal disability insurance with moral hazards: absenteeism, presenteeism, and shirking. (English) Zbl 1414.91228

Summary: Presenteeism occurs when employees are present at the workplace but cannot perform at their best because of ill-health or other reasons, while absenteeism occurs when employees are absent from the workplace. Although absenteeism is important, researchers now say presenteeism can be more costly to businesses and may be responsible for as much as three times the health-related lost productivity as compared to absenteeism and may cost the U.S. economy as much as $150 billion per year. Given the cost of absenteeism and presenteeism, one of the objectives of this article is to provide actuaries with the techniques and insights needed to design disability insurance policies that take into account the dynamics of absenteeism and presenteeism. To this end we develop a simple multistate sickness-disability model of the evolution of an employee’s health over time. We assume employees receive sick pay, the size of which depends on their health state, and there is a government-sponsored unemployment insurance program. In our model it is possible for employees in good health to avoid work by staying home, which is called shirking. To reduce shirking, the employer decides to check the health status of a certain percentage of employees who “call in sick”. Given the sick-pay structure, the probability of a health check, and the existence of unemployment insurance, employees develop rational strategies about whether to engage in shirking, absenteeism, or presenteeism. These strategies are captured in a set of Volterra integral equations. We use these Volterra integral equations to show how the employer can design a disability insurance plan that can incentivise employees to eliminate shirking and to act in a manner that will maximize the employer’s expected profits.


91B30 Risk theory, insurance (MSC2010)
Full Text: DOI


[1] Abel, A. B., Operative Gift and Bequest Motives, American Economic Review, 77, 1037-1047, (1987)
[2] Acemoglu, D.; Shimer, R., Productivity Gains from Unemployment Insurance, European Economic Review, 44, 1195-1224, (2000)
[3] Adelsberg, B. R., Sedation and Performance Issues in the Treatment of Allergic Conditions, Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, 494-500, (1997)
[4] Ala-Mursula, L.; Vahtera, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Kevin, M. V.; Pentti, J., Employee Control over Working Times: Association with Subjective Health and Sickness Absences, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 272-278, (2002)
[5] Allen, S. G., An Empirical Model of Work Attendance, Review of Economics and Statistics, 63, 77-87, (1981)
[6] Antia, H. M., Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, 2nd edition, (2002), Boston: Birkhäuser, Boston · Zbl 1014.65001
[7] Aronsson, G.; Gustafsson, K.; Dallner, M., Sick but Yet at Work. An Empirical Study of Sickness Presenteeism, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 502-509, (2000)
[8] Baker, C. T. H., The Numerical Treatment of Integral Equations, (1977), Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford · Zbl 0373.65060
[9] Baker-McClearn, D.; Greasley, K.; Dale, J.; Grififith, F., Absence Management and Presenteeism: The Pressures on Employees to Attend Work and the Impact of Attendance on Performance, Human Resource Management Journal, 20, 311-328, (2010)
[10] Barmby, T. A.; Orme, C. D.; Treble, J. G., Worker Absenteeism: Analysis Using Microdata, Economic Journal, 101, 214-229, (1991)
[11] Barmby, T.; Sessions, J.; Treble, J., Absenteeism, Efficiency Wages and Shirking, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 96, 561-566, (1994) · Zbl 0925.90129
[12] Barmby, T. A.; Treble, J. G., Absenteeism in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Plant, Applied Economics, 23, 161-166, (1991)
[13] Beaton, D. E.; Kennedy, C. A., Beyond Return to Work: Testing a Measure of At-Work Disability in Workers with Musculoskeletal Pain, Quality of Life Research, 14, 1869-1879, (2005)
[14] Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.; Hagberg, J.; Aronsson, G.; Josephson, M., Sickness Presenteeism Today, Sickness Absenteeism Tomorrow? A Prospective Study on Sickness Presenteeism and Future Sickness Absenteeism, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51, 629-638, (2009)
[15] Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.; Hagbag, J.; Lindh, T.; Aronsson, G.; Josephson, M., Does Sickness Presenteeism Have an Impact on Future General Health, International Archive of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82, 1179-1190, (2009)
[16] Blanchard, O. J.; Tirole, J., The Joint Design of Unemployment Insurance and Employment Protection: A First Pass, Journal of the European Economic Association, 6, 45-77, (2008)
[17] Boles, M.; Pelletier, B.; Lynch, W., The Relationship between Health Risks and Worker Productivity, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46, 737-745, (2004)
[18] Braakman-Jansen, L. M. A.; Taal, E.; Kuper, I. H.; van de Laar, M. A. F. J., Productivity Loss Due to Absenteeism and Presenteeism by Different Instruments in Patients with RA and Subjects without RA, Rheumatology, 51, 354-361, (2012)
[19] Bratsberg, B.; Fevang, E.; Roed, K., Disability in the Welfare State: An Unemployment Problem in Disguise?, (2010)
[20] Brown, H. E.; Gilson, N. D.; Burton, N. W.; Brown, W. J., Does Physical Activity Impact on Presenteeism and Other Indicators of Workplace Well-Being?, Sports Medicine, 41, 249-262, (2011)
[21] Brown, S., Dynamic Implications of Absence Behavior, Applied Economics, 26, 1163-1175, (1994)
[22] Brown, S.; Sessions, J. G., Absenteeism, ‘Presenteeism’, and Shirking, Economic Issues, 9, 15-21, (2004)
[23] Bruderer Enzler, H.; Diekmann, A.; Meyer, R., Subjective Discount Rates in the General Population and Their Predictive Power for Energy Saving Behavior, Energy Policy, 65, 524-540, (2014)
[24] Burton, W. N.; Conti, D. J.; Chen, C. Y.; Schultz, A. B.; Edington, D. W., The Impact of Allergies and Allergy Treatment on Worker Productivity, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43, 64-71, (2001)
[25] Burton, W. N.; McCalister, K. T.; Chen, C-Y.; Edington, D. W., The Association of Health Status, Worksite Fitness Center Participation, and Two Measures of Productivity, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47, 343-351, (2005)
[26] Cady, R. C.; Ryan, R.; Jhingran, P.; O’Quinn, S.; Pait, D. G., Sumatriptan Injection Reduces Productivity Loss During a Migraine Attack: Results of Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Archives of Internal Medicine, 158, 1013-1018, (1998)
[27] Campolieti, M., Moral Hazard and Disability Insurance: On the Incidence of Hard-to-Diagnose Medical Conditions in the Canada/Quebec Pension Plan Disability Program, Canadian Public Policy, 28, 419-441, (2002)
[28] Campolieti, M., Disability Insurance Adjudication Criteria and the Incidence of Hard-to-Diagnose Medical Conditions, B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 5, 1-25, (2006)
[29] Cancelliere, C.; Cassidy, J. D.; Ammendolia, C.; Côté, P., Are Workplace Health Promotion Programs Effective at Improving Presenteeism in Workers? A Systematic Review and Best Evidence Synthesis of the Literature, BMC Public Health, 11, 395, (2011)
[30] Carlin, P. S., Why the Incidence of Shirking Varies across Employers, Journal of Behavioral Economics, 18, 61-73, (1989)
[31] Caverley, N.; Cunningham, J. B.; MacGregor, J. N., Sickness Presenteeism, Sickness Absenteeism, and Health Following Restructuring in a Public Service Organization, Journal of Management Studies, 44, 304-319, (2007)
[32] Chapman, L. S., Presenteeism and Its Role in Worksite Health Promotion, American Journal of Health Promotion, 19, 1-8, (2005)
[33] Chatterji, M.; Tilley, C. J., Sickness, Absenteeism, Presenteeism, and Sick Pay, Oxford Economic Papers, 54, 669-687, (2002)
[34] Chaudhury, M.; Ng, I., Absenteeism Predictors: Least Squares, Rank Regression, and Model Selection Results, Canadian Journal of Economics, 3, 615-634, (1992)
[35] Chen, A.; Van Der Klaauw, W., The Work Disincentive Effects of Disability Insurance Program in the 1990s, Journal of Econometrics, 142, 757-784, (2008) · Zbl 1418.62424
[36] Chetty, R., Moral Hazard Versus Liquidity and Optimal Unemployment Insurance, Journal of Political Economy, 116, 173-234, (2008)
[37] Christiansen, M. C., Multistate Models in Health Insurance, AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, 96, 155-186, (2012) · Zbl 1443.62341
[38] Cropper, M. L.; Sussman, F. G., Families and the Economics of Risks to Life, American Economic Review, 78, 255-260, (1988)
[39] Chua, R. Y.; Iyengar, S. S., Empowerment Through Choice? A Critical Analysis of the Effects of Choice in Organizations, Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 41-79, (2006)
[40] Clark, A. E., Work and Well-being, Dice Report Journal for Institutional Comparisons, 8, 17-22, (2010)
[41] Cockburn, I. M.; Bailit, H. L.; Berndt, E. R.; Finkelstein, S. N., Loss of Work Productivity Due to Illiness and Medical Treatment, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 41, 948-953, (1999)
[42] Coles, M. C.; Treble, J. G., The Price of Worker Reliability, Economic Letters, 41, 149-155, (1993) · Zbl 0800.90078
[43] Collins, J. J.; Baase, C. M.; Sharda, C. E.; Ozminkowski, R. J.; Nicholson, S.; Billotti, G. M.; Turpin, R. S.; Olson, M.; Berger, M. L., The Association of Chronic Health Conditions on Work Performance, Absence and Total Economic Impact for Employees, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47, 547-557, (2005)
[44] Cremer, H.; Lozachmeur, J.-M.; Pestieau, P., Disability Testing and Retirement, B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 1-32, (2007)
[45] Dasbach, E. J.; Carides, G. W.; Gerth, W. C.; Santanello, N. C.; Pigeon, J. G.; Kramer, M. S., Work and Productivity Loss in the Rizatriptan Multiple Attack Study, Cephalagia, 20, 830-834, (2000)
[46] Delves, L. M.; Mohamed, J. L., Computational Methods for Integral Equations, (1985), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge · Zbl 0592.65093
[47] Dew, K.; Tuapo, T., The Moral Regulation of the Workplace: Presenteeism and Public Health, Sociology of Health and Illness, 31, 994-1010, (2009)
[48] Diamond, P. A.; Mirrlees, J. A., A Model of Social Insurance with Variable Retirement, Journal of Public Economics, 10, 295-336, (1978)
[49] Diamond, P. A.; Sheshinski, E., Economic Aspects of Optimal Disability Benefits, Journal of Public Economics, 57, 1-23, (1995)
[50] Doherty, N. A., National Insurance and Absence from Work, Economic Journal, 89, 50-65, (1979)
[51] Dunn, L. F.; Youngblood, S. A., Absenteeism as a Mechanism for Approaching an Optimal Labor Market Equilibrium: An Empirical Study, Review of Economics and Statistics, 68, 668-674, (1986)
[52] Elstad, J. E.; Vabo, M., Job Stress, Sickness Absence and Sickness Presenteeism in Nordic Elderly Care, Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36, 467-474, (2008)
[53] Engstrom, P.; Holmlund, B., Worker Absenteeism in Search Equilibrium, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 109, 439-467, (2007)
[54] Frijters, P.; Shields, M. A., Welfare and Output Enhancing Moral Hazard: Disability Benefits and Endogeneous Occupational Choice, (2001)
[55] Goda, G. S.; Ramsay, C. M., Determining the Optimum Guarantee Period for a One-Life Retirement Annuity Using Utility Theory, North American Actuarial Journal, 11, 100-112, (2007)
[56] Goetzel, R. Z.; Long, S. R.; Ozminkowski, R. J.; Hawkins, K.; Wang, S.; Lynch, W., Health, Absence, Disability, and Presenteeism Cost Estimates of Certain Physical and Mental Health Conditions Affecting U. S. Employers, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46, 398-412, (2004)
[57] Goetzel, R. Z.; Wang, S.; Kelly, E.; Mauceri, E.; Columbus, D.; Cavuoti, A., The Relationship between Modifiable Health Risk Factors and Medical Expenditures, Absenteeism, Short-Term Disability, and Presenteeism among Employees at Novartis, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51, 487-499, (2009)
[58] Golden, L. O., The Effect Of Working Time On Productivity and Firm Performance: A Research Synthesis Paper, (2012)
[59] Gruber, J., Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply, Journal of Political Economy, 108, 1162-1183, (2000)
[60] Gruszin, S.; Szuster, F., Literature Review: Review of Health Status and Labor Force Productivity and Participation Data with Regard to Chronic Disease, (2010)
[61] Gujarati, D., The Behavior of Unemployment and Unfilled Vacancies: Great Britain, 1958–1971, The Economic Journal, 82, 195-204, (1972)
[62] Gustafsson, P. E.; Janlert, U.; Theorell, T.; Westerlund, H.; Hammarstrom, A., Socioeconomic Status over the Life Course and Allostatic Load in Adulthood: Results from the Northern Swedish Cohort, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, 986-992, (2011)
[63] Hall, C., Do Interactions between Unemployment Insurance and Sickness Insurance Affect Transitions to Employment?, Labour, 25, 447-467, (2011)
[64] Harrison, D. A.; Martocchi, J. J., A Time For Absenteeism: A 20-Year Review of Origins, Offshoots, and Outcomes, Journal of Management, 24, 305-350, (1998)
[65] Heinen, L.; Darling, H., Addressing Obesity in the Workplace: The Role of Employers, Milibank Quarterly, 87, 101-122, (2009)
[66] Hemp, P., Presenteeism: At Work–But Out of It, Harvard Business Review, 82, 49-58, (2004)
[67] Henricksen, A.; Stephens, C., The Happiness-Enhancing Activities and Positive Practices Inventory (HAPPI): Development and Validation, Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 81-98, (2013)
[68] Heymann, J.; Rho, H. J.; Schmitt, J.; Earle, A., Contagion Nation: A Comparison of Paid Sick Days Policies in 22 Countries, (2009)
[69] Heywood, J. S.; Jirjahn, U., Teams, Teamwork and Absence, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106, 765-782, (2004)
[70] Hölmstrom, B., Moral Hazard and Observability, Bell Journal of Economics, 10, 74-91, (1979)
[71] Hutchens, R., Delayed Payment Contracts and a Firm’s Propensity to Hire Older Workers, Journal of Labor Economics, 4, 439-457, (1986)
[72] Irvine, A., Fit For Work? The Influence of Sick Pay and Job Flexibility on Sickness Absence and Implications for Presenteeism, Social Policy and Administration, 45, 752-769, (2011)
[73] Johns, G., Contemporary Research on Absence from Work: Correlates, Causes, and Consequences, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 12, 115-174, (1997)
[74] Johns, G.; Cooper, C. L.; Barling, J., Absenteeism and Presenteeism: Not at Work or Not Working, Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior, 160-177, (2008), London: Sage, London
[75] Johns, G.; Carwright, S.; Cooper, C. L., Absenteeism or Presenteeism? Attendance Dynamics and Employee Well-Being, Oxford Handbook of Organizational Well-being, 7-30, (2009), Oxford: Oxford University Press, Oxford
[76] Johns, G., Presenteeism in the Workplace: A Review and Research Agenda, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 519-542, (2010)
[77] Johns, G., Attendance Dynamics at Work: The Antecedents and Correlates of Presenteeism, Absenteeism, and Productivity Loss, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 483-500, (2011)
[78] Johnson, S. K., Medically Unexplained Illness: Gender and Biopsychological Implications, (2008), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
[79] Karlin, S.; Taylor, H. M., A First Course in Stochastic Processes. 2nd edition, (1975), San Diego: Academic Press, San Diego · Zbl 0315.60016
[80] Keech, M.; Scott, A. J.; Ryan, P. J. J., The Impact of Influenza and Influenza-Like Illness on Productivity and Healthcare Resource Utilization in a Working Population, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 48, 85-90, (1998)
[81] Kelly, E.; Carls, G. S.; Lenhart, G.; Mauceri, E.; Columbus, D.; Cavuoti, A.; Goetzel, R. Z., The Novartis Health Index: A Method for Valuing the Economic Impact of Risk Reduction in a Workforce, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52, 528-535, (2010)
[82] Khorasanee, Z., Can Utility-Maximization Models Assist with Retirement Planning?, Journal of Actuarial Practice, 10, 97-129, (2002) · Zbl 1062.91034
[83] Klachefsky, M., 4 Pillars of Work Place Health, Benefits Selling, 73-75, (2011)
[84] Knabe, A.; Rätzel, S., Income, Happiness, and the Disutility of Labour, Economics Letters, 107, 77-79, (2010)
[85] Koopman, C.; Pelletier, K. R.; Murray, J. F.; Sharda, C. E.; Berger, M. L.; Turpin, R. S.; Hackleman, P.; Gibson, P.; Holmes, D. M.; Bendel, T., Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44, 14-20, (2002)
[86] Kythe, P.; Puri, P., Computational Methods for Linear Integral Equations, (2002), Boston: Birkhäuser Basel, Boston · Zbl 1023.65134
[87] Lazear, E. P., Why Is There Mandatory Retirement?, Journal of Political Economy, 87, 1261-1284, (1979)
[88] Lazear, E. P., Agency, Earning Profiles, Productivity, and Hours Restrictions, American Economic Review, 71, 606-620, (1981)
[89] Leineweber, C.; Westerlund, H.; Hagberg, J.; Svedberg, P.; Alexanderson, K., Sickness Presenteeism Is More than an Alternative to Sickness Absence: Results From the Population-Based SLOSH Study, International Archive of Occupational and Environmental Health, 85, 905-914, (2012)
[90] Lerner, D.; Adler, D. A.; Chang, H.; Berndt, E. R.; Irish, J. T.; Lapitsky, L.; Hood, M. Y.; Reed, J.; Rogers, W. H., The Clinical and Occupational Correlates of Work Productivity Loss among Employed Patients with Depression, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46, S46-S55, (2004)
[91] Li, X.; Gignac, M. A. M.; Anis, A. H., The Indirect Costs of Arthritis Resulting from Unemployment, Reduced Performance, and Occupational Changes while at Work, Medical Care, 44, 304-310, (2006)
[92] Lindbeck, A.; Persson, M., A Continuous Theory of Income Insurance, (2010)
[93] Linz, P., Analytical and Numerical Methods for Volterra Equations, (1985), Philadelphia: SIAM, Philadelphia · Zbl 0566.65094
[94] Loeppke, R., and P. Hymel., Good Health Is Good Business, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48, 533-537, (2006)
[95] Luptáčik, M., Mathematical Optimization and Economic Analysis, (2010), New York: Springer, New York · Zbl 1178.90004
[96] Markussen, S.; Mykletun, A.; Roed, K., The Case for Presenteeism — Evidence from Norway’s Sickness Insurance Program, Journal of Public Economics, 96, 959-972, (2012)
[97] McIntyre, R. S.; Liauwc, S.; Taylor, V. H., Depression in the Workforce: The Intermediary Effect of Medical Comorbidity, Journal of Affective Disorders, 128S1, S29-S36, (2011)
[98] McIntyre, R. S.; Wilkins, K.; Gilmour, H.; Soczynska, J. K.; Miranda, A.; Woldeyohannes, H. O.; Vagic, D.; Alsuwaidan, M.; Kennedy, S. H., The Effect of Bipolar I Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder on Workforce Function, Chronic Diseases in Canada, 28, 84-91, (2008)
[99] Michau, J.-B., Unemployment Insurance and Cultural Transmission: Theory and Application to European Unemployment, Journal of the European Economic Association, 11, 1320-1347, (2013)
[100] Munir, F.; Leka, S.; Griffiths, A., Dealing with Self-Management of Chronic Illness at Work: Predictors for Self-Disclosure, Social Science and Medicine, 60, 1397-1407, (2005)
[101] Musich, S.; Hook, D.; Baaner, S.; Edington, D. W., The Association of Two Productivity Measures with Health Risks and Medical Conditions in an Australian Employee Population, American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 353-363, (2006)
[102] Musich, S.; Hook, D.; Baaner, S.; Spooner, M.; Edington, D. W., The Association of Corporate Work Environment Factors, Health Risks, and Medical Conditions with Presenteeism among Australian Employees, America Journal of Health Promotion, 21, 127-136, (2006)
[103] Oi, W. Y., Labor as a Quasi-fixed Factors, Journal of Political Economy, 70, 538-555, (1962)
[104] Øyeflaten, I.; Lie, S. A.; Ihlebæk, C. M.; Eriksen, H. R., Multiple Transitions in Sick Leave, Disability Benefits, and Return to Work—A 4-Year Follow-up of Patients Participating in a Work-Related Rehabilitation Program, BMC Public Health, 12, 1-8, (2012)
[105] Parsons, D. O., Self-Screening in Targeted Public Transfer Programs, Journal of Political Economy, 99, 859-876, (1991)
[106] Pedersen, J.; Bjorner, J. B.; Burr, H.; Christensen, K. B., Transitions between Sickness Absence, Work, Unemployment, and Disability in Denmark 2004–2008, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 38, 516-526, (2012)
[107] Pipkin, A. C., A Course on Integral Equations, (1991), New York: Springer, New York · Zbl 0743.45002
[108] Pollak, A., Unemployment, Human Capital Depreciation, and Unemployment Insurance Policy, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 28, 840-863, (2013)
[109] Ramsay, C. M., The Asymptotic Ruin Problem When the Healthy and Sickness Periods Form an Alternating Renewal Process, Insurance: Mathematics & Economics, 3, 139-144, (1984) · Zbl 0543.62092
[110] Ramsay, C. M., On Blocked Poisson Processes in Risk Theory, Insurance: Mathematics & Economics, 10, 1-8, (1991) · Zbl 0723.62064
[111] Rätzel, S., Labour Supply, Life Satisfaction, and the (Dis)Utility of Work, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 114, 1160-1181, (2012)
[112] Romer, D., Do Firms Maximize? Evidence from Professional Football, Journal of Political Economy, 114, 340-365, (2006)
[113] Ross, S. M., Introduction to Probability Models, 10th edition, (2010), San Diego: Academic Press, San Diego · Zbl 1184.60002
[114] Rothschild, M.; Stiglitz, J., Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90, 629-649, (1976)
[115] Rubinstein, M., The Strong Case for the Generalized Logarithmic Utility Model as the Premier Model of Financial Markets, Journal of Finance, 31, 551-571, (1976)
[116] Salanié, B., The Economics of Contracts: A Primer, 2nd edition, (2005), Cambridge: MIT Press, Cambridge
[117] Salop, S. C., A Model of the Natural Rate of Unemployment, American Economic Review, 69, 11-125, (1979)
[118] Samuel, R. J.; Wilson, L. M., Is Presenteeism Hurting Your Workforce?, Employee Benefit Plan Review, 61, 5-7, (2007)
[119] Sanderson, K.; Tilse, E.; Nicholson, J.; Oldenburg, B.; Graves, N., Which Presenteeism Measures Are More Sensitive to Depression and Anxiety, Journal of Affective Disorders, 101, 65-74, (2007)
[120] Schultz, A. B.; Chen, C-Y; Edington, D. W., The Cost and Impact of Health Conditions on Presenteeism to Employers: A Review of the Literature, Pharmacoeconomics, 27, 365-378, (2009)
[121] Schultz, A. B.; Edington, D. W., Employee Health and Presenteeism: Systematic Review, Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 17, 547-579, (2007)
[122] Shapiro, C.; Stiglitz, J. E., Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device, American Economic Review, 74, 433-444, (1984)
[123] Skatun, J. D., Take Some Days Off, Why Don’t You? Endogenous Sick Leave and Pay, Journal of Health Economics, 22, 379-402, (2003)
[124] Skrepnek, G. H.; Nevins, R.; Sullivan, S., An Assessment of Health and Work Productivity Measurement in Employer Settings, Pharmaceuticals Policy and Law, 14, 37-49, (2012)
[125] Spencer, D. A., Love’s Labor’s Lost? The Disutility of Work and Work Avoidance in the Economic Analysis of Labor Supply, Review of Social Economy, 61, 235-250, (2003)
[126] Steers, R. M.; Rhodes, S. R., Major Influences on Employee Attendance: A Process Model, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 391-407, (1978)
[127] Stewart, W. F.; Ricci, J. A.; Chee, E.; Morganstein, D., Lost Productive Work Time Costs from Health Conditions in the United States: Results from the American Productivity Audit, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45, 1234-1246, (2003)
[128] Sundaram, R. K., A First Course in Optimization Theory, (1996), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge · Zbl 0885.90106
[129] Taloyan, M.; Aronsson, G.; Leineweber, C.; Hanson, L. M.; Alexanderson, K.; Westerlund, H., Sickness Presenteeism Predicts Suboptimal Self-Rated Health and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Study of the Swedish Working Population, PLoS ONE, 7, e44721, (2012)
[130] Taylor, H. M.; Karlin, S., An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling, 3rd edition, (1998), Boston: Academic Press, Boston · Zbl 0946.60002
[131] Taylor, J., (1972)
[132] Testa, M. A.; Simonson, D. C., Health Economic Benefits and Quality of Life during Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Journal of American Medical Association, 280, 1490-1496, (1998)
[133] Theorell, T.; Oxenstierna, G.; Westerlund, H.; Ferrie, J.; Hagberg, J.; Alfedsson, L., Downsizing of Staff Is Associated with Lowered Medically Certified Sick Leave in Female Employees, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 1-5, (2003)
[134] Tirole, J., The Theory of Industrial Organization, (1988), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
[135] Trogdon, J. G.; Finkelstein, E. A.; Hyland, T.; Dellea, P. S.; Kamal-Bahl, S. J., Indirect Cost of Obesity: A Review of the Current Literature, Obesity Review, 9, 489-500, (2008)
[136] Uegaki, K.; de Bruijne, M. C.; Anema, A. J., J. R.; van Tulder, M. W.; van Mechelen, W., Consensus-Based Findings and Recommendations for Estimating the Costs of Health-Related Productivity Loss from a Company’s Perspective, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 33, 122-130, (2007)
[137] van den Heuvel, S. G.; Geuskens, G. A.; Hooftman, W. E.; Koppes, L. L. J.; van den Bossche, S. N. J., Productivity Loss at Work: Health-Related and Work-Related Factors, Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20, 331-339, (2010)
[138] van Vilsteren, M.; Boot, C. R. L.; Steenbeek, R.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Voskuy, A. E.; Anema, J. R., An Intervention Program with the Aim to Improve and Maintain Work Productivity for Workers with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study, BMC Public Health, 12, 1-9, (2012)
[139] Waddell, G.; Aylward, M., Models of Sickness and Disability, (2010)
[140] Wickman, T.; Marklund, S.; Alexanderso, K., Illness, Disease, and Sickness Absence: An Empirical Test of Differences between Concepts of Ill Health, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 450-454, (2005)
[141] Willingham, J. G., Managing Presenteeism and Disability to Improve Productivity, Benefits & Compensation Digest, 1, 11-14, (2008)
[142] Winkelmann, L.; Winkelmann, R., Why Are the Unemployed So Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data, Economica, 65, 1-15, (1998)
[143] WHO Guide to Identifying the Economic Consequences of Disease and Injury, (2009)
[144] Zhang, W.; Bansback, N.; Anis, A. H., Measuring and Valuing Productivity Loss Due to Poor Health: A Critical Review, Social Science and Medicine, 72, 185-192, (2011)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.