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Locally computable UOWHF with linear shrinkage. (English) Zbl 1377.94028
Summary: We study the problem of constructing locally computable universal one-way hash functions (UOWHFs) \(\mathcal {H}:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m\). A construction with constant output locality, where every bit of the output depends only on a constant number of bits of the input, was established by the first author et al. [SIAM J. Comput. 36, No. 4, 845–888 (2006; Zbl 1126.94014)]. However, this construction suffers from two limitations: (1) it can only achieve a sublinear shrinkage of \(n-m=n^{1-\epsilon }\) and (2) it has a super-constant input locality, i.e., some inputs influence a large super-constant number of outputs. This leaves open the question of realizing UOWHFs with constant output locality and linear shrinkage of \(n-m= \epsilon n\), or UOWHFs with constant input locality and minimal shrinkage of \(n-m=1\). We settle both questions simultaneously by providing the first construction of UOWHFs with linear shrinkage, constant input locality and constant output locality. Our construction is based on the one-wayness of “random” local functions–a variant of an assumption made by O. Goldreich [Studies in complexity and cryptography. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 6650, 76–87 (2011; Zbl 1306.94056)]. Using a transformation of Y. Ishai et al. [Proceedings of the 40th annual ACM symposium on theory of computing 2008, STOC 2008. New York, NY: ACM, 433–442 (2008; Zbl 1231.94050)], our UOWHFs give rise to a digital signature scheme with a minimal additive complexity overhead: signing \(n\)-bit messages with security parameter \(\kappa \) takes only \(O(n+\kappa )\) time instead of \(O(n\kappa )\) as in typical constructions. Previously, such signatures were only known to exist under an exponential hardness assumption. As an additional contribution, we obtain new locally computable hardness amplification procedures for UOWHFs that preserve linear shrinkage.
An extended abstract appeared in [Eurocrypt 2013, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7881, 486–502 (2013; Zbl 1306.94022)].
94A60 Cryptography
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