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Nontransitive dice sets realizing the Paley tournaments for solving Schütte’s tournament problem. (English) Zbl 1313.05150
Summary: The problem of a multiple player dice tournament is discussed and solved in the paper. A die has a finite number of faces with real numbers written on each. Finite dice sets are proposed which have the following property, defined by Schütte for tournaments: for an arbitrary subset of $$k$$ dice there is at least one die that beats each of the $$k$$ with a probability greater than $$1/2$$. It is shown that the proposed dice set realizes the Paley tournament, that is known to have the Schütte property (for a given $$k$$) if the number of vertices is large enough. The proof is based on Dirichlet’s theorem, stating that the sum of quadratic nonresidues is strictly larger than the sum of quadratic residues.

MSC:
 05C20 Directed graphs (digraphs), tournaments 05C69 Vertex subsets with special properties (dominating sets, independent sets, cliques, etc.) 11A15 Power residues, reciprocity