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On ideal lattices and learning with errors over rings. (English) Zbl 1279.94099
Gilbert, Henri (ed.), Advances in cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2010. 29th annual international conference on the theory and applications of cryptographic techniques, French Riviera, May 30 – June 3, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin: Springer (ISBN 978-3-642-13189-9/pbk). Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6110, 1-23 (2010).
Summary: The “learning with errors” (LWE) problem is to distinguish random linear equations, which have been perturbed by a small amount of noise, from truly uniform ones. The problem has been shown to be as hard as worst-case lattice problems, and in recent years it has served as the foundation for a plethora of cryptographic applications. Unfortunately, these applications are rather inefficient due to an inherent quadratic overhead in the use of LWE. A main open question was whether LWE and its applications could be made truly efficient by exploiting extra algebraic structure, as was done for lattice-based hash functions (and related primitives).
We resolve this question in the affirmative by introducing an algebraic variant of LWE called ring-LWE, and proving that it too enjoys very strong hardness guarantees. Specifically, we show that the ring-LWE distribution is pseudorandom, assuming that worst-case problems on ideal lattices are hard for polynomial-time quantum algorithms. Applications include the first truly practical lattice-based public-key cryptosystem with an efficient security reduction; moreover, many of the other applications of LWE can be made much more efficient through the use of ring-LWE. Finally, the algebraic structure of ring-LWE might lead to new cryptographic applications previously not known to be based on LWE.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1188.94008].

MSC:
94A60 Cryptography
68P25 Data encryption (aspects in computer science)
81P94 Quantum cryptography (quantum-theoretic aspects)
68Q17 Computational difficulty of problems (lower bounds, completeness, difficulty of approximation, etc.)
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