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Least-squares finite element method for shallow-water equations with source terms. (English) Zbl 1269.76071
Summary: Numerical solution of shallow-water equations (SWE) has been a challenging task because of its nonlinear hyperbolic nature, admitting discontinuous solution, and the need to satisfy the \(C\)-property. The presence of source terms in momentum equations, such as the bottom slope and friction of bed, compounds the difficulties further. In this paper, a least-squares finite-element method for the space discretization and \(\theta\)-method for the time integration is developed for the 2D non-conservative SWE including the source terms. Advantages of the method include: the source terms can be approximated easily with interpolation functions, no upwind scheme is needed, as well as the resulting system equations is symmetric and positive-definite, therefore, can be solved efficiently with the conjugate gradient method. The method is applied to steady and unsteady flows, subcritical and transcritical flow over a bump, 1D and 2D circular dam-break, wave past a circular cylinder, as well as wave past a hump. Computed results show good \(C\)-property, conservation property and compare well with exact solutions and other numerical results for flows with weak and mild gradient changes, but lead to inaccurate predictions for flows with strong gradient changes and discontinuities.

76M10 Finite element methods applied to problems in fluid mechanics
76B10 Jets and cavities, cavitation, free-streamline theory, water-entry problems, airfoil and hydrofoil theory, sloshing
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