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An energy- and charge-conserving, implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell algorithm. (English) Zbl 1237.78006
Authors’ abstract: This paper discusses a novel fully implicit formulation for a one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation approach. Unlike earlier implicit electrostatic PIC approaches (which are based on a linearized Vlasov-Poisson formulation), ours is based on a nonlinearly converged Vlasov-Ampère (VA) model. By iterating particles and fields to a tight nonlinear convergence tolerance, the approach features superior stability and accuracy properties, avoiding most of the accuracy pitfalls in earlier implicit PIC implementations. In particular, the formulation is stable against temporal (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) and spatial (aliasing) instabilities. It is charge- and energy-conserving to numerical round-off for arbitrary implicit time steps (unlike the earlier “energy-conserving” explicit PIC formulation, which only conserves energy in the limit of arbitrarily small time steps). While momentum is not exactly conserved, errors are kept small by an adaptive particle sub-stepping orbit integrator, which is instrumental to prevent particle tunneling (a deleterious effect for long-term accuracy). The VA model is orbit-averaged along particle orbits to enforce an energy conservation theorem with particle sub-stepping. As a result, very large time steps, constrained only by the dynamical time scale of interest, are possible without accuracy loss. Algorithmically, the approach features a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver. A main development in this study is the nonlinear elimination of the new-time particle variables (positions and velocities). Such nonlinear elimination, which we term particle enslavement, results in a nonlinear formulation with memory requirements comparable to those of a fluid computation, and affords us substantial freedom in regards to the particle orbit integrator. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the advertised properties of the scheme. In particular, long-time ion acoustic wave simulations show that numerical accuracy does not degrade even with very large implicit time steps, and that significant CPU gains are possible.

MSC:
78A35 Motion of charged particles
76M28 Particle methods and lattice-gas methods
35Q83 Vlasov equations
82D10 Statistical mechanical studies of plasmas
78A25 Electromagnetic theory, general
65H10 Numerical computation of solutions to systems of equations
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