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Harmonious order of graphs. (English) Zbl 1188.05138
Summary: We consider the following generalization of the concept of harmonious graphs. Given a graph \(G=(V,E)\) and a positive integer \(t\geq|E|\), a function \(\widetilde{h}:V(G)\to\mathbb Z_t\) is called a \(t\)-harmonious labeling of \(G\) if \(\widetilde{h}\) is injective for \(t\geq|V|\) or surjective for \(t<|V|\), and \(\widetilde{h}(v)+ \widetilde{h}(w)\neq \widetilde{h}(x)+ \widetilde{h}(y)\) for all distinct edges \(vw,xy\in E(G)\). Then the smallest possible \(t\) such that \(G\) has a \(t\)-harmonious labeling is named the harmonious order of \(G\). We determine the harmonious order of some non-harmonious graphs, such as complete graphs \(K_n\) \((n\geq5)\), complete bipartite graphs \(K_{m,n}\) \((m,n>1)\), even cycles \(C_n\), some powers of paths \(P_n^k\), disjoint unions of triangles \(nK_3\) (\(n\) even). We also present some general results concerning harmonious order of the Cartesian product of two given graphs or harmonious order of the disjoint union of copies of a given graph. Furthermore, we establish an upper bound for harmonious order of trees.

MSC:
05C78 Graph labelling (graceful graphs, bandwidth, etc.)
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