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Surface stress effects on the resonant properties of metal nanowires: the importance of finite deformation kinematics and the impact of the residual surface stress. (English) Zbl 1175.74009
Summary: We utilize the recently developed surface Cauchy-Born model, which extends the standard Cauchy-Born theory to account for surface stresses due to undercoordinated surface atoms, to study the coupled influence of boundary conditions and surface stresses on the resonant properties of \(\langle \)1 0 0\(\rangle\) gold nanowires with \(\{\)1 0 0\(\}\) surfaces. There are two major purposes to the present work. First, we quantify, for the first time, variations in the nanowire resonant frequencies due to surface stresses as compared to the corresponding bulk material which does not observe surface effects within a finite deformation framework depending on whether fixed/free or fixed/fixed boundary conditions are utilized. We find that while the resonant frequencies of fixed/fixed nanowires are elevated as compared to the corresponding bulk material, the resonant frequencies of fixed/free nanowires are reduced as a result of compressive strain caused by the surface stresses. Furthermore, we find that for a diverse range of nanowire geometries, the variation in resonant frequencies for both boundary conditions due to surface stresses is a geometric effect that is characterized by the nanowire aspect ratio. The present results are found to agree well with existing experimental data for both types of boundary conditions.
The second major goal of this work is to quantify, for the first time, how both the residual (strain-independent) and surface elastic (strain-dependent) parts of the surface stress impact the resonant frequencies of metal nanowires within the framework of nonlinear, finite deformation kinematics. We find that if finite deformation kinematics are considered, the strain-independent surface stress substantially alters the resonant frequencies of the nanowires; however, we also find that the strain-dependent surface stress has a significant effect, one that can be comparable to or even larger than the effect of the strain-independent surface stress depending on the boundary condition, in shifting the resonant frequencies of the nanowires as compared to the bulk material.

MSC:
74A25 Molecular, statistical, and kinetic theories in solid mechanics
74S05 Finite element methods applied to problems in solid mechanics
74-05 Experimental work for problems pertaining to mechanics of deformable solids
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