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Outflow boundary conditions for one-dimensional finite element modeling of blood flow and pressure waves in arteries. (English) Zbl 1163.74453
Summary: Flow and pressure waves, originating due to the contraction of the heart, propagate along the deformable vessels and reflect due to tapering, branching, and other discontinuities. The size and complexity of the cardiovascular system necessitate a multiscale approach, with upstream regions of interest (large arteries) coupled to reduced-order models of downstream vessels. Previous efforts to couple upstream and downstream domains have included specifying resistance and impedance outflow boundary conditions for the nonlinear one-dimensional wave propagation equations and iterative coupling between three-dimensional and one-dimensional numerical methods. We have developed a new approach to solve the one-dimensional nonlinear equations of blood flow in elastic vessels utilizing a space-time finite element method with GLS-stabilization for the upstream domain, and a boundary term to couple to the downstream domain. The outflow boundary conditions are derived following an approach analogous to the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) method. In the downstream domain, we solve simplified zero/one-dimensional equations to derive relationships between pressure and flow accommodating periodic and transient phenomena with a consistent formulation for different boundary condition types. In this paper, we also present a new boundary condition that accommodates transient phenomena based on a Green’s function solution of the linear, damped wave equation in the downstream domain.

MSC:
74-XX Mechanics of deformable solids
76-XX Fluid mechanics
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