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Flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of water-based Al\(_2\)O\(_3\) nanofluids in fully developed laminar flow regime. (English) Zbl 1156.80333
Summary: We have measured the pressure drop and convective heat transfer coefficient of water-based Al\(_{2}\)O\(_{3}\) nanofluids flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube in the fully developed laminar flow regime. The experimental results show that the data for nanofluid friction factor show a good agreement with analytical predictions from the Darcy’s equation for single-phase flow. However, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids increases by up to 8% at a concentration of 0.3 vol% compared with that of pure water and this enhancement cannot be predicted by the Shah equation. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient enhancement exceeds, by a large margin, the thermal conductivity enhancement. Therefore, we have discussed the various effects of thermal conductivities under static and dynamic conditions, energy transfer by nanoparticle dispersion, nanoparticle migration due to viscosity gradient, non-uniform shear rate, Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis on the remarkable enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids. Based on scale analysis and numerical solutions, we have shown, for the first time, the flattening of velocity profile, induced from large gradients in bulk properties such as nanoparticle concentration, thermal conductivity and viscosity. We propose that this flattening of velocity profile is a possible mechanism for the convective heat transfer coefficient enhancement exceeding the thermal conductivity enhancement.

MSC:
80A20 Heat and mass transfer, heat flow (MSC2010)
76S05 Flows in porous media; filtration; seepage
60J65 Brownian motion
76R50 Diffusion
80-05 Experimental work for problems pertaining to classical thermodynamics
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