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Turbulent dynamics of pipe flow captured in a reduced model: Puff relaminarization and localized ‘edge’ states. (English) Zbl 1156.76395
Summary: Fully three-dimensional computations of flow through a long pipe demand a huge number of degrees of freedom, making it very expensive to explore parameter space and difficult to isolate the structure of the underlying dynamics. We therefore introduce a ‘\(2+\epsilon\)-dimensional’ model of pipe flow, which is a minimal three-dimensionalization of the axisymmetric case: only sinusoidal variation in azimuth plus azimuthal shifts are retained; yet the same dynamics familiar from experiments are found. In particular the model retains the subcritical dynamics of fully resolved pipe flow, capturing realistic localized ‘puff-like’ structures which can decay abruptly after long times, as well as global ‘slug’ turbulence. Relaminarization statistics of puffs reproduce the memoryless feature of pipe flow and indicate the existence of a Reynolds number about which lifetimes diverge rapidly, provided that the pipe is sufficiently long. Exponential divergence of the lifetime is prevalent in shorter periodic domains. In a short pipe, exact travelling-wave solutions are found near flow trajectories on the boundary between laminar and turbulent flow. In a long pipe, the attracting state on the laminar-turbulent boundary is a localized structure which resembles a smoothened puff. This ‘edge’ state remains localized even for Reynolds numbers at which the turbulent state is global.

MSC:
76F06 Transition to turbulence
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