Variance of the CTE estimator. (English) Zbl 1085.62511

Summary: We consider the issue of modeling the latent or hidden exposure occurring through either incomplete data or an unobserved underlying risk factor. We use the celebrated expectation maximization (EM) algorithm as a convenient tool in detecting latent (unobserved) risks in finite mixture models of claim severity and in problems where data imputation is needed. We provide examples of applicability of the methodology based on real-life auto injury claim data and compare, when possible, the accuracy of our methods with that of standard techniques. Sample data and an EM algorithm program are included to allow readers to experiment with the EM methodology themselves.


62P05 Applications of statistics to actuarial sciences and financial mathematics
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