Turbulent channel flow near maximum drag reduction: Simulations, experiments and mechanisms.

*(English)*Zbl 1063.76580Summary: It is well known that the drag in a turbulent flow of a polymer solution is significantly reduced compared to Newtonian flow. Here we consider this phenomenon by means of a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow. The polymers are modelled as elastic dumbbells using the FENE-P model. In the computations the polymer model is solved simultaneously with the flow equations, i.e. the polymers are deformed by the flow and in their turn influence the flow structures by exerting a polymer stress. We have studied the results of varying the polymer parameters, such as the maximum extension, the elasticity and the concentration. For the case of highly extensible polymers the results of our simulations are very close to the maximum drag reduction or Virk (1975) asymptote. Our simulation results show that at approximately maximum drag reduction the slope of the mean velocity profile is increased compared to the standard logarithmic profile in turbulent wall flows. For the r.m.s. of the streamwise velocity fluctuations we find initially an increase in magnitude which near maximum drag reduction changes to a decrease. For the velocity fluctuations in the spanwise and wall-normal directions we find a continuous decrease as a function of drag reduction. The Reynolds shear stress is strongly reduced, especially near the wall, and this is compensated by a polymer stress, which at maximum drag reduction amounts to about 40% of the total stress. These results have been compared with LDV experiments of Ptasinski et al. (2001) and the agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is in most cases very good. In addition we have performed an analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets. The main result is a reduction of energy transfer from the streamwise direction, where the production of turbulent kinetic energy takes place, to the other directions. A substantial part of the energy production by the mean flow is transferred directly into elastic energy of the polymers. The turbulent velocity fluctuations also contribute energy to the polymers. The elastic energy of the polymers is subsequently dissipated by polymer relaxation. We have also computed the various contributions to the pressure fluctuations and identified how these change as a function of drag reduction. Finally, we discuss some cross-correlations and various length scales. These simulation results are explained here by two mechanisms. First, as suggested by Lumley (1969) the polymers damp the cross-stream or wall-normal velocity fluctuations and suppress the bursting in the buffer layer. Secondly, the ‘shear sheltering’ mechanism acts to amplify the streamwise fluctuations in the thickened buffer layer, while reducing and decoupling the motions within and above this layer. The expression for the substantial reduction in the wall drag derived by considering the long time scales of the nonlinear fluctuations of this damped shear layer, is shown to be consistent with the experimental data of Virk et al. (1967) and Virk (1975).