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A new volume-of-fluid formulation for surfactants and simulations of drop deformation under shear at a low viscosity ratio. (English) Zbl 1063.76077
Summary: A numerical algorithm for the linear equation of state is developed for the volume-of-fluid interface-tracking code SURFER++, using the continuous surface stress formulation for the description of interfacial tension. This is applied to deformation under simple shear for a liquid drop in a much more viscous matrix liquid. We choose a Reynolds number and capillary number at which the drop settles to an ellipsoidal steady state, when there is no surfactant. The viscosity ratio is selected in a range where experiments have shown tip streaming when surfactants are added. Our calculations show that surfactant is advected by the flow and moves to the tips of the drop. There is a threshhold surfactant level, above which the drop develops pointed tips, which are due to surfactant accumulating at the ends of the drop. Fragments emitted from these tips are on the scale of the mesh size, pointing to a shortcoming of the linear equation of state, namely that it does not provide a lower bound on interfacial tension. One outcome is the possibility of an unphysical negative surface tension on the emitted drops.

##### MSC:
 76M25 Other numerical methods (fluid mechanics) (MSC2010) 76D45 Capillarity (surface tension) for incompressible viscous fluids 76D05 Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids
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