Exact second-order structure-function relationships.

*(English)*Zbl 1062.76028Summary: Equations that follow from the Navier-Stokes equation and incompressibility but with no other approximations are ‘exact’. Exact equations relating second- and third-order structure functions are studied, as is an exact incompressibility condition on the second-order velocity structure function. Opportunities for investigations using these equations are discussed. Precisely, defined averaging operations are required to obtain exact averaged equations. Ensemble, temporal and spatial averages are all considered because they produce different statistical equations and because they apply to theoretical purposes, experiment and numerical simulation of turbulence. Particularly simple exact equations are obtained for the following cases: (i) the trace of the structure functions, (ii) DNS that has periodic boundary conditions, and (iii) an average over a sphere in \(r\)-space. Case (iii) introduces the average over orientations of \(r\) into the structure-function equations. The energy dissipation rate \(\varepsilon\) appears in the exact trace equation without averaging, whereas in previous formulations \(\varepsilon\) appears after averaging and use of local isotropy. The trace mitigates the effect of anisotropy in the equations, thereby revealing that the trace of the third-order structure function is expected to be superior for quantifying asymptotic scaling laws. The orientation average has the same property.