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Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states. (English) Zbl 0969.94501
Summary: Quantum techniques for key distribution–the classically impossible task of distributing secret information over an insecure channel whose transmissions are subject to inspection by an eavesdropper, between parties who share no secret initially–have been proposed using (a) four nonorthogonally polarized single-photon states or low-intensity light pulses, and (b) polarization-entangled or spacetime-entangled two-photon states. Here we show that in principle any two nonorthogonal quantum states suffice, and describe a practical interferometric realization using low-intensity coherent light pulses.

MSC:
94A60 Cryptography
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