Direct numerical simulation of self-similar turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients.

*(English)*Zbl 0949.76044Summary: Direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations have been carried out with the objective of studying turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients. The boundary layer flows concerned are of the equilibrium type which makes the analysis simpler and the results can be compared with earlier experiments and simulations. This type of turbulent boundary layers also permits an analysis of the equation of motion to predict separation. The linear analysis based on the assumption of asymptotically high Reynolds number gives results that are not applicable to finite Reynolds number flows. A different nonlinear approach is presented to obtain a useful relation between the freestream variation and other mean flow parameters. Comparison of turbulent statistics from the zero pressure gradient case and two adverse pressure gradient cases shows the development of an outer peak in the turbulent energy in agreement with experiment. The turbulent flows have also been investigated using a differential Reynolds stress model. Profiles for velocity and turbulence quantities obtained from the direct numerical simulations were used as initial data. The initial transients in the model predictions vanished rapidly. The model predictions are compared with the direct simulations, and low Reynolds number effects are investigated.

##### MSC:

76F65 | Direct numerical and large eddy simulation of turbulence |

76F40 | Turbulent boundary layers |

76D10 | Boundary-layer theory, separation and reattachment, higher-order effects |

76M25 | Other numerical methods (fluid mechanics) (MSC2010) |

76M55 | Dimensional analysis and similarity applied to problems in fluid mechanics |