The joint distribution of the time of ruin, the surplus immediately before ruin, and the deficit at ruin.

*(English)*Zbl 0894.90047Summary: We examine the joint distribution of the time of ruin, the surplus immediately before ruin, and the deficit at ruin. The time of ruin is analyzed in terms of its Laplace transform, which can naturally be interpreted as discounting. We show that, as a function of the initial surplus, the joint density satisfies a certain renewal equation. We generalize Dickson’s formula (see [D. C. M. Dickson, Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 11, 191–207 (1992)] which expresses the joint distribution of the surplus immediately before ruin and the deficit at ruin in terms of the probability of ultimate ruin.

##### MSC:

91B30 | Risk theory, insurance (MSC2010) |

91G50 | Corporate finance (dividends, real options, etc.) |

60K05 | Renewal theory |

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\textit{H. U. Gerber} and \textit{E. S. W. Shiu}, Insur. Math. Econ. 21, No. 2, 129--137 (1997; Zbl 0894.90047)

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