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Changes of numéraire, changes of probability measure and option pricing. (English) Zbl 0829.90007
Summary: The use of the risk-neutral probability measure has proved to be very powerful for computing the prices of contingent claims in the context of complete markets, or the prices of redundant securities when the assumption of complete markets is relaxed. We show here that many other probability measures can be defined in the same way to solve different asset-pricing problems, in particular option pricing. Moreover, these probability measure changes are in fact associated with numéraire changes; this feature, besides providing a financial interpretation, permits efficient selection of the numéraire appropriate for the pricing of a given contingent claim and also permits exhibition of the hedging portfolio, which is in many respects more important than the valuation itself.
The key theorem of general numéraire change is illustrated by many examples, among which the extension to a stochastic interest rates framework of the Margrabe formula, Geske formula, etc.

MSC:
91G20 Derivative securities (option pricing, hedging, etc.)
60G35 Signal detection and filtering (aspects of stochastic processes)
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