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Three views of common knowledge. (English) Zbl 0704.03008
Theoretical aspects of reasoning about knowledge, Proc. 2nd Conf., Pacific Grove/CA (USA) 1988, 365-379 (1988).
Summary: [For the entire collection see Zbl 0699.00012.]
This paper investigates the relationship between three different views of common knowledge: the iterate approach, the fixed point approach, and the shared environment approach. We show that no two of these approaches are equivalent, contrary to accepted wisdom. We argue that the fixed point is the best conceptual analysis of the pretheoretic notion, but that the shared environment approach has its own role to play in understanding how common knowledge is used. We also discuss the assumptions under which various versions of the iterate approach are equivalent to the fixed point approach. We find that, for common knowledge, these assumptions are false, but that for simply having information, the assumptions are not so implausible, at least in the case of finite situations.

03B60 Other nonclassical logic
68T30 Knowledge representation
91A05 2-person games