A general constitutive relation for linear elastic foams.

*(English)*Zbl 1264.74194Summary: A three-dimensional linear elastic constitutive relation is formulated based on a representative unit cell of foam using elasticity theory and micromechanics homogenization scheme. The displacement and strain fields of the unit cell are obtained from elasticity theory and used to derive the macroscopic strain field defined on the outer surface of unit cell through homogenization scheme. By assuming a uniform macroscopic stress on the unit cell surface and the existence of strain energy potential, the constitutive relation of linear elastic foams is obtained. The newly derived constitutive relation is a function of mechanical property of solid constituent, the geometry of cell struts, and the porosity of foams and is able to characterize the anisotropic behavior of foams due to non-uniform strut geometry. The linear elastic response of open-celled foams with both low- and medium-relative densities can be studied using the derived constitutive relation. The effective elastic modulus for uniform strut geometry is reduced from the constitutive relation and agrees well with Gibson and Ashby’s semi-empirical equation, Warren and Kraynik’s, and Zhu’s analytical models within relative density ranging from 0 to 0.35. For non-uniform strut geometry, the calculated effective elastic moduli in three axial directions are different and the material displays anisotropic behavior. The bulk modulus shows less dependence on the variation of the strut geometry. Poisson’s ratios are also reduced from the compliance matrix.