zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Mathematical modeling for the solidification heat-transfer phenomena during the reflow process of lead–tin alloy solder joint in electronics packaging. (English) Zbl 1019.80500
Summary: In electronic packaging lead–tin alloy is frequently used to joint electronic components. For the formation of solder joint, lead–tin alloy usually undergoes a reflow process which includes spreading, re-melting, and then solidification of the alloy. Therefore, the properties of lead–tin alloy solder joint and in turn the success of electronic packaging will be significantly affected by the reflow process. In this study, solidification heat-transfer analysis is conducted for a auto-rectifier to obtain the temperature distribution and variation of the lead–tin alloy as well as the whole electronic part during the reflow process. Explicit finite difference method is employed to conduct the solidification simulation for the reflow process. First a solid model for analysis is constructed based on the actual shape and size of the electronic component including the solder joints. Then the model is meshed for the subsequent numerical analysis. The next step is to investigate all possible heat-transfer mechanisms. All the heats to be extracted and relevant heat-transfer mechanisms are considered in the solidification model to calculate for the temperature distribution and variation of the lead–tin alloy solder joints during the reflow process. Temperature measurement at one particular location of the auto-rectifier is conducted during the whole reflow process in an actual production line. The calculated temperature for the same position is then compared to the measurement and satisfactory consistency is found. Then a shrinkage criterion is also used to quantitatively predict the extent of shrinkage formation in the solder joints.
80A20 Heat and mass transfer, heat flow (MSC2010)
80M20 Finite difference methods applied to problems in thermodynamics and heat transfer
Full Text: DOI
[1] G.K. Mui, X. Wu, K.X. Hu, C.P. Yeh, K. Wyatt, Solder Joint Formation Simulation and Finite Element Analysis, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1997, pp. 436-443
[2] Pfeifer, M.J., Solder bump size and shape modeling and experimental validation, IEEE transactions on components, packaging, and manufacturing technology, part B, 20, 4, 452-457, (1997)
[3] Lau, J.H.; Rice, D.W., Thermal fatigue life prediction of flip chip solder joints by fracture mechanics method, (), 385-392
[4] R. Dudek, M. Nylen, A. Schubert, B. Michel, H. Reichl, An Efficient Approach to Predict Solder Fatigue Life and its Application to SM- and Area Array Components, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1997, pp. 462-471
[5] Bhatti, P.K.; Gschwend, K.; Kwang, A.Y.; Syed, A.R., Three-dimensional creep analysis of solder joints in surface mount devices, Transactions of the ASME, journal of electronic packaging, 117, 20-25, (1995)
[6] Sarihan, V., Energy based methodology for damage and life prediction of solder joints under thermal cycling, IEEE transactions on components, packaging, and manufacturing technology, part B, 17, 4, 626-631, (1994)
[7] Pao, Y.H.; Govila, R.; Badgley, S., Thermal fatigue fracture of 90pb/10sn solder joint, (), 291-300
[8] Backman, D.G.; Mehrabian, R.; Flemings, M.C., Die thermal behavior in machine casting of partially solid high temperature alloys, Metallurgical transactions B, 8B, 471-477, (1977)
[9] Chen, I.G.; Stefanescu, D.M., Computer-aided differential thermal analysis of spheroidal and compacted graphite cast irons, AFS transaction, 947-964, (1984)
[10] Upadhya, K.G.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Lieu, K.; Yeager, D.P., Computer-aided cooling curve analysis: principles and applications in metal casting, AFS transaction, 61-66, (1989)
[11] Voss, M.J.; Tsai, H.L., Effect of the rate of latent heat release on fluid flow and solidification patterns during alloy solidification, International journal of engineering science, 34, 6, 715-737, (1996) · Zbl 0900.76664
[12] V. Laurent, C. Rigaut, An Experiment and Numerical Study of Criteria Functions for Predicting Microporosity in Cast Aluminum Alloys, AFS Preprint Number: 92-163, 1992
[13] V.K. Suri, H. Huang, J.T. Berry, J.L. Hill, Application of Thermal Parameter Based Porosity Criteria to Long-Freezing-Range Aluminum Alloys, AFS Preprint Number: 92-166, 1992
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. It attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming the completeness or perfect precision of the matching.