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Amortized complexity of information-theoretically secure MPC revisited. (English) Zbl 07216154
Shacham, Hovav (ed.) et al., Advances in cryptology – CRYPTO 2018. 38th annual international cryptology conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 19–23, 2018. Proceedings. Part III. Cham: Springer (ISBN 978-3-319-96877-3/pbk; 978-3-319-96878-0/ebook). Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10993, 395-426 (2018).
Summary: A fundamental and widely-applied paradigm due to Franklin and Yung (STOC 1992) on Shamir-secret-sharing based general \(n\)-player MPC shows how one may trade the adversary threshold \(t\) against amortized communication complexity, by using a so-called packed version of Shamir’s scheme. For e.g. the BGW-protocol (with active security), this trade-off means that if \(t + 2k -2 < n/3\), then \(k\) parallel evaluations of the same arithmetic circuit on different inputs can be performed at the overall cost corresponding to a single BGW-execution.
In this paper we propose a novel paradigm for amortized MPC that offers a different trade-off, namely with the size of the field of the circuit which is securely computed, instead of the adversary threshold. Thus, unlike the Franklin-Yung paradigm, this leaves the adversary threshold unchanged. Therefore, for instance, this paradigm may yield constructions enjoying the maximal adversary threshold \(\lfloor(n-1)/3\rfloor\) in the BGW-model (secure channels, perfect security, active adversary, synchronous communication).
Our idea is to compile an MPC for a circuit over an extension field to a parallel MPC of the same circuit but with inputs defined over its base field and with the same adversary threshold. Key technical handles are our notion of reverse multiplication-friendly embeddings (RMFE) and our proof, by algebraic-geometric means, that these are constant-rate, as well as efficient auxiliary protocols for creating “subspace-randomness” with good amortized complexity. In the BGW-model, we show that the latter can be constructed by combining our tensored-up linear secret sharing with protocols based on hyper-invertible matrices √° la Beerliova-Hirt (or variations thereof). Along the way, we suggest alternatives for hyper-invertible matrices with the same functionality but which can be defined over a large enough constant size field, which we believe is of independent interest.
As a demonstration of the merits of the novel paradigm, we show that, in the BGW-model and with an optimal adversary threshold \(\lfloor(n-1)/3 \rfloor\), it is possible to securely compute a binary circuit with amortized complexity \(O(n)\) of bits per gate per instance. Known results would give \(n\log n\) bits instead. By combining our result with the Franklin-Yung paradigm, and assuming a sub-optimal adversary (i.e., an arbitrarily small \(\epsilon>0\) fraction below 1/3), this is improved to \(O(1)\) bits instead of \(O(n)\).
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1394.94001].
MSC:
94A60 Cryptography
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