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The calculation of linear least squares problems. (English) Zbl 1118.65326
Summary: We first survey componentwise and normwise perturbation bounds for the standard least squares (LS) and minimum norm problems. Then some recent estimates of the optimal backward error for an alleged solution to an LS problem are presented. These results are particularly interesting when the algorithm used is not backward stable.
The QR factorization and the singular value decomposition (SVD), developed in the 1960s and early 1970s, remain the basic tools for solving both the LS and the total least squares (TLS) problems. Current algorithms based on Householder or Gram-Schmidt QR factorizations are reviewed. The use of the SVD to determine the numerical rank of a matrix, as well as for computing a sequence of regularized solutions, is then discussed. The solution of the TLS problem in terms of the SVD of the compound matrix \((b\;A)\) is described.
Some recent algorithmic developments are motivated by the need for the efficient implementation of the QR factorization on modern computer architectures. This includes blocked algorithms as well as newer recursive implementations. Other developments come from needs in different application areas. For example, in signal processing rank-revealing orthogonal decompositions need to be frequently updated. We review several classes of such decompositions, which can be more efficiently updated than the SVD.
Two algorithms for the orthogonal bidiagonalization of an arbitrary matrix were given by G. Golub and W. Kahan [J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., Ser. B, Numer. Anal. 2, 205–224 (1965; Zbl 0194.18201)], one using Householder transformations and the other a Lanczos process. If used to transform the matrix \((b\;A)\) to upper bidiagonal form, this becomes a powerful tool for solving various LS and TLS problems. This bidiagonal decomposition gives a core regular subproblem for the TLS problem. When implemented by the Lanczos process it forms the kernel in the iterative method LSQR. It is also the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) method, which has become a standard tool in statistics.
We present some generalized QR factorizations which can be used to solve different generalized least squares problems. Many applications lead to LS problems where the solution is subject to constraints. This includes linear equality and inequality constraints. Quadratic constraints are used to regularize solutions to discrete ill-posed LS problems. We survey these classes of problems and discuss their solution.
As in all scientific computing, there is a trend that the size and complexity of the problems being solved is steadily growing. Large problems are often sparse or structured. Algorithms for the efficient solution of banded and block-angular LS problems are given, followed by a brief discussion of the general sparse case. Iterative methods are attractive, in particular when matrix-vector multiplication is cheap.

MSC:
65F20 Numerical solutions to overdetermined systems, pseudoinverses
65-02 Research exposition (monographs, survey articles) pertaining to numerical analysis
Software:
BLAS; JDQZ; LAPACK; mctoolbox
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